Logarythmic view

A logarithmic scale photo-artistic view collage (by Pablo Carlos Budassi) of what we think we know about the Universe with our still human Earthling-centric perspectival conception: At the center, our Earth's solar system, inner and outer planets, the Kuiper belt of dwarf planets (one e.g., Pluto), the Oort cloud of Sun-held comets, the nearest start Alpha Centauri, the Perseus Arm of our Milky Way barred-spiral galaxy where is the world of our nighttime stars, the near and large Andromeda galaxy, and beyond the world of galaxies stretching away toward the postulated cosmic web of primordial structure-formation, the (red) cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation, and finally the mysterious, egg-like hard edge, the Big Bang.
Cosmology—A History & the New Ptolemaic system
(In chapters I-XIV linked below)

The old Ptolemaic system (painted here by Dutch-German cartographer and cosmographer, Andreas Cellarius (c1596-1665): Earth at the center of the orderly cosmos of the spheres of the planets, the zodiac, and Judeo-Christian iconography.

(Images: link: link; link).

To explain and predict planetary retrograde motion, and still have Earth the center, and the Platonic forms, moving perfect circles or epicycles were added into the Old Ptolemaic system as free parameters....

Ockham's Razor (
Novacula Occami) did not originate with, but was used effectively in logic by English Franciscan friar William of Ockam (c1287-1347): Most famously formulated as this statement of a Lex Parsimoniae (law of parsimony) "Entia non sunt multiplicanda praeter necessitatem," i.e., 'Entities must not be multiplied beyond necessity' (link).
An admittedly perspectival representation of cosmic lookback time toward the CMB (COBE image) from Earth, the farthest we can supposedly see toward the Big Bang: The New Ptolemaic system.
Earth centered Big Bang
With enough ad hoc free parameters, or epicycles, one can 'model' anything: In the amusing case below (link; cf. animations), we could instead find our desired ratio (π) by taking any circle and dividing its measured circumference (C) by its measured diameter (d).

A modern version of Occam's Razor: The theoretical model with the fewest ad hoc assumptions, hypotheses, and free / adjustable parameters, is more likely to be scientifically testable, and thus informative about Nature or the Universe. This is not as assertive as claiming, "more likely to be true," but more informative.

Do either the Old or the New Ptolemaic systems pass that standard? That comparative question underlies our discussion here. For the New Ptolemic system, one may set ~10 general epicycles and more advanced epicycles, using Ed Wright's (UCLA) 'equation of state' for the Big Bang. Appropriately one may examine the behavior of the 'baryonic acoustic oscillations' in the CMB and the 'fact' of the 'initial condition' in the epicycles of the Big Bang from cosmologist-apologist Fr. Adam D. Hincks, S.J., Ph.D., citing the CAMB (Code for Anisotropies in the Microwave Background), and linked by a Dr. Angela Collier who asserts >20[?] times that (nonbaryonic) 'dark matter is not a theory' but observations, ignoring how theory-laden the claims are in these Big Bang epicycles. The religious-dogmatic impetus for maintaining these epicycles shows.

The Ptolemaic cosmology was a tidy, orderly, (Platonic) Earth-centered cosmology, which may be emblematic of how we continue to pursue cosmology. There is a remarkable mental-schematic similarity in our conceptions of what we think we understand when we look out at the Universe, seemingly inescapably putting ourselves at its conceptual, if no longer, its spatial-temporal center. Our human self-referentiality is seen in speculations such as the "anthropic principle" to the 'finely-tuned' ad hoc features to make our models work. It has been observed that science advances when our current scientific models or paradigms at any given time encounter the arising of data unexpected indicating anomalies of explanatory discomfiture for the contemporary model. Adjustable parameters (epicycles) tend to be added to accommodate these anomalous data, until they become so numerous that there is a crisis for the paradigm, and a new model is proposed, which hopefully has fewer ad hoc features, and is better able to explain the extant data (Thomas Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, 1962, 1970, 2nd ed.).

In this website, we examine whether the current scientific model, in this case contemporary established cosmology, is encountering enough anomalous data to provoke a paradigm-shaking crisis such as happened in the 17th century, and before that in the Ionian Enlightenment. Since it is cosmology (models of the Universe), it is inevitable that such queries raise the largest questions of all.

Humans have always been restless searchers for comprehension, meaning, and for making sense of it all. From where do we come? To where are we going? How and Why is the immense World in which we find ourselves the way it is? "What is our future?" "Are we alone?" What is the meaning of our lives in a vast Universe?

"There may be wisdom; there may be power; somewhere across space great instruments, handled by strange, manipulative organs, may stare vainly at our floating cloud wrack, their owners yearning as we yearn. Nevertheless, in the nature of life and in the principles of evolution we have had our answer. Of men elsewhere, and beyond, there will be none forever" (Loren Eiseley, 1946, 1957. The Immense Journey. New York: Vintage, Random House; p. 162;
image link).
Searcher (modern)
The New Ptolemaic System:
How the Hot Big Bang Cosmology became ascendant in Modern Cosmology

Contemporary cosmology and the free inquiry legacy of the Enlightenment

A project of the Enlightenment Legacy Net / Space: https://enlightenmentlegacy.net/; https://enlightenmentlegacy.space/.
URL: https://www.enlightenmentlegacy.net/cosmos/; https://www.enlightenmentlegacy.space/cosmos//.

    Abstract. This website (in the links below) is a brief telling of the colorful story of the struggle to shape cosmology from before the 20th century and into the 21st. Starting with primitive cosmologies and scanning the sweep of history in cosmology leading up to the 21st century, we summarize data accumulating over the three-quarters of a century suggesting that the Universe may be far vaster, far older (than ~13.8 billion years, Ga for Giga-annua or Gya for billion years ago), and very different than pictured in the conventional and inflationary, concordance Hot Big Bang Cosmology (HBBC), and note the partially-successful battle to secure for these data a fair hearing in peer-reviewed literature. The tone was set mid-century when there was a "war of the world-views" between the classic Hot Big Bang Cosmology and the Classic Steady State Cosmology (CSSC). That battle didn't end the way it has been popularly told, and there are surprises and lessons in that saga which we will draw upon issues which shape our whole modern human approach to cosmology-making. As more data has come in, and more contradictions have arisen, a number of ad hoc hypotheses have been added to rescue the HBBC, accommodate and explain details in the cosmic microwave background (CMB, officially discovered in 1965, but actually discovered in the 1930s). There have been missed opportunities, which became sociological factors in the consideration of cosmological models. Two prominent examples include (a) The claims by Martin Ryle starting just before 1960 that radio source counts in the growing Cambridge catalogs ruled out Steady State cosmologies, when statistical tests showed that his group cohorts as they grew were actually approaching the CSSC predicted values, and had in fact not done so at all even as of 1988, years after a Nobel prize had been given for his non-conclusive claims. (b) The claim after 1965 that the CMB blackbody radiation confirmed the Big Bang and disconfirmed the Steady State cosmologies was in fact mistaken, although even the CSSC advocates even did not notice it then. In fact, the classic Steady State cosmologies actually predicted the CMB radiation and its specific observed temperature far more precisely than any non-ad hoc adjusted Big Bang model has then or since. Missing these two opportunities and other opportunities we will discuss, cosmology became increasingly closed paradigmatically after 1970, and open dialogue languished, despite growing evidences that the dominant paradigm is deeply flawed.

    Since then, there have been major developments in paradigm-busting alternative cosmologies* published in the scientific literature, including within the broad tradition and spirit of the CSSC. The HBBC has also changed much, including with the addition of inflationary hypotheses since 1980. The current version of the HBBC, the
ΛCDM (lambda expansion acceleration parameter, cold 'dark matter') concordance model of the Big Bang has been 'precision'-adjusted with many added parameters, invisible entities, to attempt to fit the CMB data, the galactic redshifts distance-ladder, and the modeling of many simulations of the origin of structure in the Universe. These parameter-fittings are suspiciously like the circle-upon-circle epicycles which made the old geocentric Ptolemaic system work, leading one to suspect that the ΛCDM Concordance version of the HBBC might have become the New Ptolemaic system. In this treatment, we use the terms Universe to refer to the reality in which we exist, and cosmos and cosmologies to refer to our human attempts at ordered conceptions and models of that reality, whether among the 20th and 21st century astronomers and cosmologists, or among the Paleolithic skywatchers. Differentiating these is to remind us not to mistake the "grandeur" and "elegance" of our cosmologies, for the grandeur and elegance of the Universe. 

    In this review of the history and prehistory of human cosmology-making, we also explore in summary the relation of human cosmos-making with human meaning-making in the search for the numinous, for agents with intent, spirits and gods in Nature, and since the Agricultural Revolution in the hierarchies of societies. It is curious but not surprising that many western (Judeo-Christian) religious apologetic uses of the HBBC have arisen, claiming corroboration of divine fiat creation (somewhat paralleling the young Earth creationists, YEC of Earth planetary geology) these apologists (despite sometimes being chided by astronomers and cosmologists) have embraced a kind of 'finely-tuned' by God 'young universe cosmology' (YUC, i.e., ~13.8 Ga). Aside from uses by religious fundamentalism, a glaring example is the modern revival by some evangelical Christians of the Islamic 'Kalam cosmological argument' (which shares some kinship with the Aristotelian-Aquinean medieval 'proofs for God') along with biblical statements (out of exegetical context) as they have applied them to 20th century extrapolations of a Big Bang singularity (as far as general relativity goes). Another kindred set of examples are the apologetic claims in some quarters in Judaism following searches for parallels between modern cosmology / modern physics and statements in Tanakh and Kabbalah texts. We critique the use of arguments based on the so-called "fine-tuning" of the "big bang" applied apologetically in the agency and existence of God debate, noting that a number of the so-called "fine-tuning" HBBC 'evidences' cited to support 'design' and 'purpose' in the cosmos, are actually very human "fine-tuning" artifacts of ad hoc attempts to make the HBBC workable at all. We relate this ongoing discussion to the ongoing Copernican legacy of the Enlightenment in their God debates, and to the search for understanding in what may be an infinite and eternal, or indefinitely old Universe. Following some of the most influential and critical of Enlightenment thinkers, we spare dogmatic assertions about the nature of the divine or of ultimate reality. It is suggestive enough that many of the insightful thinkers then, centuries before and today have glimpsed that the nature of God or the Ultimate is somehow intimately connected with the Nature of the Universe.

    In contemporary science, the residual, persisting effect of established institutional orthodoxies and the resulting sociology of scientific paradigms upon modern cosmology (cf. Lopez-Corredoira, 2014) is a living cautionary tale for all seekers of truth, religious or non-religious. A critical free inquiry in the best tradition of the Enlightenment is incompatible with too close an alliance of specific philosophical-theological beliefs with any particular cosmological model. And we will review the successes as well as the shortcomings of the prevailing cosmology. However, we as humans simply know far less than we think we do.

   This website is an ephemeral and never complete scrapbook of data, references, and musings of an observer apparently late in the long span of human prehistory / history since anatomically modern humans first explored Earth and caught their early glimpses and created their early views of the Universe over 300,000 years ago—for we have been a cosmos-making and thus a meaning-making species. In a time when narrow religio-political-national-class and other tribalisms, hatreds, conflicts abound, and when multinational corporate and consumerist greed afflict and endanger our small planet, this is a tiny flickering tribute to the candle light of free-thought, the truth seeking spirit of the Enlightenment, and hopefully a small part of keeping that spirit flowing and the candle lit. An ongoing exploration of our outer world, requires us to examine our inner world of conceptions also. This journey of reviewing our ongoing history of cosmology-making is also a journey through our story as humankind being children of and yet sojourners in the Universe.

    Sometimes, developments in cosmology and cosmology-making take place in millennia and centuries (chapter I), sometimes in decades as during the controversies in cosmology in the mid-to-later 20th century (chapter III), and sometimes they take mere days and months as described in the new chapter IV (mid-2022 - present). The James Webb Space Telescope is empirically upending various foundations of the prevailing cosmological model of the HBBC in its current ΛCDM rendition. This is a Kuhnian paradigm-shifting time in cosmology. This brings us to our recently added Chapter V. The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) discoveries are rocking the foundations of the ΛCDM HBB Cosmology (first publicly published on 02 July 2023, just 10 days before the 1st anniversary of JWST Day 1: 12 July 2022).

Also new is our weaving in throughout the website in both bibliography and chapters of the influential welter of books aimed at both specialist and a general informed audiences of readers, attempting to influence the community, the public, and overall perception and acceptance of cosmological models, including popular works by Georges Lemaître, George Gamow, Sir Fred Hoyle, Sir Hermann Bondi, Steven Weinberg, Robert Jastrow, Sir Steven Hawking, Paul Davies, John Barrow / Frank Tipler, Helge Kragh, Sir Roger Penrose, Lawrence Krause, Sir Martin Rees, Rodney Holder, Alistair McGrath, Keith Ward, Victor Stenger, and many others. This trend shows the degree to which the conflicts over cosmology are fought in the court of public persuasion.

Also, forthcoming there will be a new chapter XI, "On the 'dwarf galaxy problem" which deal with the 'dwarf galaxy problem' and the implications for modeling galactic cosmogony. These data and discussions are important for cosmological models

    Because nothing takes the place of seeing, the site is illustrated not only with photos, diagrams, and representations of archaeological artifacts, old manuscripts, sculptures, traditions, models, but also photographic plates from the early days of astronomy and the magnificent images from modern optical observatories, radio telescopes / interferometers, and of course, the Hubble Space Telescope, the Chandra X-ray Observatory, the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) on the Spitzer Space Telescope, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), the Advanced Camera for Survey (ACS),
the Infrared Camera for Multi-object Spectrometer (NICMOS), and of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation with the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) and other experiments, including the Planck CMB map, as well as now, the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), and more.

First set of images of the fully operational JWST, tasked with "unfolding the infrared universe" (11 July 2022; https://www.nasa.gov/webbfirstimages), as well as the almost immediately renewed controversy over whether the Big Bang cosmology can accommodate some of these very deep sky galaxy data. The main JWST home website and its frequently updated image gallery are available: More JWST images will be rotated through in keeping with themes and discoveries.

Juxtaposed images of an Abell cluster of galaxies, SMACS-0723, ~4 billion light-years (Gly) away, (Hubble Space Telescope or HST on Left, and James Webb Space Telescope  or JWST on Right).

Part of the Carina Nebula, NGC 3324: A star forming region (longest nebular protrusions are about 7 light-years long).

NGC 7317, NGC 7318A / 7318B, NGC 7319, and NGC 7320, or Stephan's Quintet of galaxies (also known as Hickson Compact Group 92; HCG 92). More about this enigmatic group in the pages linked below.

NGC 3132, Southern Ring Nebula ~2,500 light-years distant, a planetary nebula of gas and dust shed away by a dying star (<5 solar masses), which after swelling into a red giant, has blown away the shells of gas and dust, leaving a white dwarf, for the first time revealed as swaddled in dust (taken by two JWST cameras). Note the distant galaxy, edge-on at about 10 o'clock.

Representation of a spectrum (taken by JWST) indicating the presence of an H2O absorption spectrum on a hot gas giant planet (~0.48 Jupiter masses) called WASP 96b (found in 2013 by the Wide Angle Search for Planets) which is only
0.0453 AU (astronomical units, ~93 million miles, Sun-Earth distance) from its star, WASP 92, with an orbital period of only about 3.4 days (link).

In December 2023, the JWST gallery released a stunning image made by JWST's NIRCam of the solar planet Uranus, its rings, and 14 of its 27 known moons earlier in the year (04 Sept 2023), translated into visible light. Aside from a reference to a 'scattering' of background galaxies, the splendid juxtaposition of Uranus and her moons before a distant archipelago of galaxies of different distances and divergent stellar population ages is breathtaking.  

(link; higher resolution link).

(With the visible moon names, link; higher resolution link).

Imagery will be found where relevant in the following pages.

*Brief introductions to the observational or empirical Machian Cosmology of Halton Arp (EMC) and the Quasi-Steady State Cosmology (QSSC) of Hoyle, Burbidge, and Narlikar (since 1992, 1993), and including an updated version of the Classic Steady State Cosmologies (CSSC) of Hoyle, Bondi, and Gold are included, along with the burst of creative activity on C-field variations of the CSSC by Hoyle & Narlikar during the 1960s, as well as references to other alternative cosmological models, especially the Cyclic Non-Singular Bounce Cosmologies (CBC) of Ijjas, Steinhardt, et al., as well as Conformal Cyclic Cosmology (CCC) of Penrose et al., CPT symmetry cosmologies of Turok et al., the older plasma cosmologies of Alven, Lerner, and others, and various emerging forays into possible "quantum gravity" non-singular models, where the embarrassment of singularities are absent. Our criterion for inclusion in this discussion is generally but not exclusively publication in the peer-reviewed literature, including the semi-reviewed preprint services, and my own individual interest in any model as making testable predictions. The point is to not to proclaim a new paradigmatic cosmology, but open the doors of consideration enough to think both inside of, outside of, and beyond the New Ptolemaic paradigm of the HBB Cosmology of the ΛCDM hypothesis

Hipparchus observing the skies in the 2nd century BCE
(based on a 19th century engraving, from Wilson, 1980).
James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) in the 21st century CE
JWST (image; Webb Telescope site: https://webbtelescope.org/; STScI JWST site: https://www.stsci.edu/jwst; NASA JWST site progress on the instruments: https://www.jwst.nasa.gov/).

Table of Contents
All links are live, which are not marked as "temporarily unavailable...."
I. Mythos to Cosmos: World-views from the Paleolithic through the {Aristarchan-}Copernican Revolution to Willem de Sitter (>3 Mya to early 20th century). (Updated June 2024).
II. The Enlightenment: Ontology of the divine (mid-17th - 18th centuries). (Updated March 2024). [Temporarily unavailable during revision-expansion]

III. The Hubble relation and the expanding Universe: "The war of the world-views" and the slide toward a new Ptolemaic system? (1929-2013). (Updated May 2024). [Temporarily unavailable during revision-expansion]

IV. The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation: From Where and Whence? "As far as the eye can see?" (Updated May 2024). [Temporarily unavailable during revision-expansion] In this chapter, post-1980 Inflationary HBB cosmologies and counter-inflationary alternative HBB cosmologies such as conformal cyclic cosmology (CCC), cyclic bouncing cosmology (CBC), and charge, parity, & time reversal symmetry (CPT) cosmology are explored, as well as predictions of non-HBBC cosmologies. (See also Select Bibliography and Resources below).

V. The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) discoveries are rocking the foundations of the ΛCDM HBB Cosmology. (Updated July 2024 The 'Hubble tension' remains. And so do the redshift anomalies discussed at length in chapters V, VI, VII, VIII, IX, and X remain). [First publicly published on 02 July 2023, just 10 days before the 1st anniversary of JWST Day 1: 12 July 2022]. 

VI. Unexpected large-scale structures & violations of homogeneity and isotropy. (Updated April 2024).

VII. Unexpected galactic redshifts. (Updated June 2024).

VIII. Radiogalaxies: Strange powerhouses of intergalactic space-time. (Updated May 2024).

IX. Vast jets and galactic ejection phenomena: Mass origin-ejection? (Updated July 2024). [Temporarily unavailable during revision-expansion]

X. Multiple galactic alignments: Ejections and galaxy clusters? (Updated March 2024). [Temporarily unavailable during revision-expansion]

XI. On the 'dwarf galaxy problem' for cosmological models. [Temporarily unavailable]

XII. Infinite Universe at large & at small: A new {Aristarchan-}Copernican Revolution in time & space? (Updated June 2023). [Temporarily unavailable during revision-expansion]

XIII. Worlds aplenty: Evolution of stellar planetary systems & the cosmic origins of life. (Updated June 2024). [Temporarily unavailable during revision-expansion]

XIV. Cosmic ponderings: What does it all mean? (Updated June 2024). [Temporarily unavailable during revision-expansion]

The "Overview Effect": Seeing Earth from out there!

Apollo 8 astronaut Bill Anders' famous shot as it actually appeared to the astronauts on 24 December 1968.

Seattle Times, Wednesday, December 5, 2012:

                  cosmic earthrise
"At the Heritage Flight Museum in Bellingham with his 'Earthrise' photo, former astronaut Bill Anders says of the moon, 249,000 miles away, 'It's a long ways off.' Anders and his crew were the first humans to travel to another planet, an experience he says exploded his views on humanity and traditional religion. 'We think we're special,' he says. 'We're not.'" (http://seattletimes.com/ABPub/zoom/html/2019836722.html).

Now that humans have been to space, they have experienced the "Overview Effect" (link). See also the short Vimeo documentary Overview (cf. link), which opens with this quote:

"Once a photograph of the Earth, taken from outside, is available ... a new idea as powerful as any in history will be let loose" (Fred Hoyle, 1948).

The photo, flipped in a more traditional Earth-friendly horizontal orientation by NASA technicians, captured the imagination of the world as "Earthrise." Anders says this orientation (left) of the image is the most faithful to what the astronauts actually perceived and saw.

[Excerpts from the Seattle Times story] . . . .

"Christmas Eve [1968] television broadcast. While beaming grainy, close-up images of the lunar surface to an audience estimated at a billion people, the crew took turns reading the first 10 verses of the book of Genesis. Anders spoke first:

'In the beginning, God created the heavens and the earth. And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters. And God said, Let there be light.'

. . . Some viewers accepted it as it was intended, as a tribute to the human creation story common to many cultural and religious traditions on Earth. . . . Borman, the flight commander, had been advised to think of something memorable to say on that occasion. He chose Genesis more for its poetry than piety, Anders says. The message was meant to be universal.

Ironically, Anders' six days in space forever altered his own view of his place in the universe. Raised a Catholic, Anders says he held generally to a traditional Christian viewpoint of the Earth being created by a God who fashioned Earthlings in his own image.

The view from space changed everything.

"When I looked back and saw that tiny Earth, it snapped my world view," Anders says. "Here we are, on kind of a physically inconsequential planet, going around a not particularly significant star, going around a galaxy of billions of stars that's not a particularly significant galaxy - in a universe where there's billions and billions of galaxies."

'Are we really that special? I don't think so.'

. . . .

The photo showed Earthlings, for the first time, just how fragile and beautiful their planet appeared from afar. It became the symbol of the first Earth Day in 1970 and is given credit for helping propel the environmental movement itself something Anders embraces.

'I've always used the phrase, ironic,' Anders says. 'We came all this way to discover the moon. And what we really did discover is Earth.'

. . . ."

(To give feedback, e-mail)

Lee F Greer, Ph.D.
/ info@enlightenmentlegacy.space
(c) 1998-2024

A few leading space age instruments & some news items:
New: What is JWST looking at right now? https://www.webbtelescope.org/webb-science/the-observatory/what-is-webb-observing-now.html.
The James Webb Space Telescope
JWST (image; Webb Telescope site: https://webbtelescope.org/; STScI JWST site: https://www.stsci.edu/jwst; NASA JWST site progress on the instruments: https://www.jwst.nasa.gov/).
Temporary links on the latest results from our leading optical observatory, the JWST, which are of significance in testing cosmologies:
  • James Webb Space Telescope gallery:
  • Links to papers on arXiv and elsewhere with their relevance to testing cosmological models
  • Since the JWST has become operational, results of cosmological relevance have been coming in quickly enough to where it takes work to integrate it into the history. This seems to be a possible time of paradigm change in cosmology.

The Hubble Space Telescope
image cited from http://hubblesite.org/).

Orbiting X-ray observatory, Chandra (http://chandra.harvard.edu).
Spitzer Space Telescope (IR)
The Spitzer Space Telescope
(detecting light in the infrared or IR spectral range, http://www.spitzer.caltech.edu/about/index.shtml).
JWST compared with the Spitzer (May 2022)
Spitzer v JWST
Future of optical space telescopes
Future space telescopes
Future space telescopes proposed apertures (link).
Webb Telescope EM spectral window
JWST EM window
James Webb 'first light' alignment
JWST 'first light'
JWST first light.
James Webb Space Telescope from Earth!
JWST from Earth!
JWST from Earth (24 Jan 2022: https://www.universetoday.com/154282/want-to-know-what-james-webb-looks-like-in-powerful-earth-telescopes-prepare-to-be-underwhelmed/).
  Recently launched and first images (link) from first light of the James Webb Space Telescope (https://www.stsci.edu/jwst/; NASA: https://www.jwst.nasa.gov/); JWST homepage: https://webbtelescope.org with its image gallery: https://webbtelescope.org/resource-gallery/images.


Select Bibliography & Resources

A selection of the papers / sources cited here and throughout this website itself (updated July 2024): These tend to be papers and resources of central significance or interest to the subject of cosmology (and for some), the reason for citation may become clear later in the website, where a lot more papers and their references are embedded within the relevant pages / chapters (some republished, some in preparation). {Comments are included with some works or resources, and added from time to time, sometimes as new references are added, all in the service of telling the story. Such a bibliography can never be complete}.

Aarseth, S. 1985. Direct N-body calculations in IAU Symposium 113 on Dynamics of Star Clusters. Eds. J. Goodman and P. Hut. Reidel, 251.

Agacy, R. L. & McCrea, W. H. 1961. A transformation of the de Sitter metric and the law of creation of matter. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (MNRAS) 123, 383-390. http://adsabs.harvard.edu//full/seri/MNRAS/0123//0000383.000.html.

AGNs (active galactic nuclei), a literature list on the history of interpretation of AGNs: https://ned.ipac.caltech.edu/level5/Sept04/Shields/Shields_refs.html.

Alternate Cosmology Group (ACG). 2004-present. http://www.cosmology.info/. Published "An Open Letter to the Scientific Community" (New Scientist, 22 May 2004: http://cosmologystatement.org/.

Albrecht, A. 1999. Reply to 'A different approach to cosmology.' Physics Today 52 (4), 44. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.882626.

Alpher, R. A. & Herman, R. 1948. Evolution of the Universe. Nature 162, 774. https://doi.org/10.1038/162774b0.

Ambartsumian, V. A. 1908-1996. Viktor Ambartsumian was one of the most learned and independent-minded astronomers and astrophysicists, as well as a statesman in the USSR for his own native Soviet Armenia. He was one of the first to consider the possibility that galaxy clusters may not be gravitationally-bound and may in fact be explosively coming apart in their evolution, a cosmogonical idea heretical to the New Ptolemaic System paradigm of the HBBC: cf. what we've called the Ambartsumian-Arp cosmogony, cf. work of another Soviet astronomer, B. A. Vorontsov-Vel'yaminov (1959). See discussion in forthcoming Chapter IX. Vast jets and galactic ejection phenomena: Mass origin-ejection from active galactic nuclei? building on earlier chapters. During his life, Ambartsumian published 610 contributions: http://ambartsumian.ru/dvd/Publications/all_publications_or.htm. A query under his name on the Harvard University Astrophysics Database System (https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/search/), yields 118 results, including his own work and others citing his work. 

____. 1954. On the origin of stars. Les Processus Nucléaires dans les Astres, Communications présentées au cinquième Colloque International d'Astrophysique tenu à Liège les 10-12 Septembre 1953; p. 293. https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1954LIACo...5..293A/abstract.

____. 1955. Some remarks on multiple galaxies. Nekotorye Zamečaniâ o Kratnyh Galaktikah. Soobšenie na simpoziume Meždunarodnogo Astronomičeskogo Soûza v Dubline. Communication at the Symposium of the International Astronomical Union in Dublin. 1955. Akademiia Nauk Armianskoi SSR, Yerevan. https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1955srmg.rept.....A/abstract.

____. 1956a. On multiple galaxies. Izvest. Akad. Nauk Arm. SSR 9, 23-43. https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1956IzArm...9...23A/abstract.

____. 1956b. On the question of the nature of radiosources. Proceedings of the Fifth Meeting on Cosmogony. Trudy Pjatogo soveshanija po voprosam kosmogonii. 9-12 marta 1955 g. Radioastronomija, pp. 413-416. https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1956cosm.meet..413A/abstract.

____. 1958a. Some remarks on multiple galaxies. Comparison of the Large-Scale Structure of the Galactic System with that of Other Stellar Systems, Proceedings from IAU Symposium no. 5 held in Dublin, 2 September 1955. Edited by Nancy Grace Roman. International Astronomical Union. Symposium no. 5, Cambridge University Press, p. 4. https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1958IAUS....5....4A/abstract.

____. 1958b. On the evolution of galaxies. Izvestiya Akademiya Nauk Armyanskoi 11 (5), 9-37. https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1958IzArm..11....9A/abstract.

____. 1958c. On the evolution of galaxies. Izdatel'stvo Akademii Nauk Armianskoi SSR. Erevan, U.S.S.R. https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1958oeg..book.....A/abstract.  

____. 1958d. Solvay Conference on Structure and Evolution of the Universe. Brussels, Belgium: R. Stoops; p. 241.

____. 1960. On the evolution of stellar systems (George Darwin Lecture). Quarterly Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society 1, 152. Full lecture:https://articles.adsabs.harvard.edu/pdf/1960QJRAS...1..152A.  

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Arp, H., Burbidge, E. M., & Burbidge, G. 2004. The double radio source 3C343.1: A galaxy-QSO pair with very different redshifts. https://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0401007. Astronomy and Astrophysics 414, L37. https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361:20031745.

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The BICEPS / Keck Observations of the cosmic background radiation (CMB) and their publications: http://bicepkeck.org/index.html. Discussions in the yet-to-be-posted chapter IV, "The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation: From Where and Whence?"

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Bussotti, P. & Brunello, L. 2022. Cosmology in the Early Modern Age: A Web of Ideas. Springer. https://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-3-031-12195-1; https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-12195-1. Volume covers early modern cosmology from Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo, Descartes, Huygens, Newton, and Leibniz, exploring the history and the epistemology. Volume 56 in Shahid Rahman (series ed.). in Logic, Epistemology, and the Unity of Science series. Springer. https://www.springer.com/series/6936.

Calder, N. 1969. Violent Universe: An eyewitness account of the New Astronomy. New York, NY: Viking Press. Reflects the ferment of the '60s in cosmology while leaning toward the Big Bang, especially a closed, perhaps cyclical version. This book was a companion to the 5 part, ~2.5 hour BBC documentary broadcast in 1969 called "The Violent Universe" (now in black and white on YouTube) which we discuss in the to-be-republished section, "The Hubble Relation and the expanding Universe: 'The War of the World-Views' and the slide toward a new Ptolemaic system?" (Also linked above in the Table of Contents). Argues that the 1960s is a ferment of progress driven by controversy in Astronomy as happened to Physics in the 1930s-40s, and as with Biology with DNA and macromolecules in the 1950s, and accelerating since into the Age of Genomics in the late 1990s and the 21st century.

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Centre de Donnees Astronomiques de Strasbourg: Strasbourg Astronomical Data Center. https://cds.unistra.fr/; SIMBAD Astronomical Database - CDS (Strasbourg): https://simbad.cds.unistra.fr/simbad/; VizieR published astronomical catalogues: https://vizier.cds.unistra.fr/index.gml; Aladin Sky Atlas: https://aladin.cds.unistra.fr/aladin.gml. This major European astronomical database hub, includes links to SIMBAD, VizieR, and the Aladin Sky Atlas.

Chandra X-ray Observatory Center: http://chandra.harvard.edu.

Charge, Parity, and Time reversal (CPT) Symmetry Cosmology: Although there were some precursor developments CPT symmetry cosmology was proposed in 2018 by Latham Boyle, Kieran Finn, and Neil Turok (with other colleagues later), developed since with a minimum of assumptions and free parameters, using the Standard Model of particle physics, and accepted modern cosmology observations and assumptions along quantum theory to build a time-symmetric model where the BB in forward time is a mirror symmetric image of an anti-BB in reverse time. arXiv: https://arxiv.org/ Query on "CPT symmetric universe"; Harvard astrophysics data system: cf. https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/ Query on "CPT symmetric universe". Along with post-1980 HBBC inflationary cosmology and other kindred counter-inflationary HBB cosmologies, it will be explored in the forthcoming Chapter V. The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation: From Where and Whence? Relevant papers will be cited in this Select Bibliography and particularly in Ch. V as required.

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Clowes, R., Harris, K. A., Raghunathan, S., Campusano, L. E., Soechting, I. K., Graham, M. J. 2013. A structure in the early Universe at z ∼ 1.3 that exceeds the homogeneity scale of the R-W concordance cosmology. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 1211 (4), 6256. https://arxiv.org/abs/1211.6256.

Coe, A. et al. 2022. Coe, A. (ed.). Deciphering Earth's History: the Practice of Stratigraphy.‎ London, UK: The Geological Society of London.

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Crowe, M. J. 1994. Modern Theories of the Universe, from Herschel to Hubble. Mineola, NY: Dover Publications.

Conformal Cyclic Cosmology (CCC): A cyclic cosmology which rejects the inflationary paradigm approach to the HBBC. In CCC, the Universe reiterates from one Aeon to the next Aeon across infinite cycles with future conformal infinite boundaries between Aeons or cycles of the Universe. It was proposed by Sir Roger Penrose and colleagues since 2010, and makes active predictions about former Aeon remnants in the form of concentric circles of anisotropy in the CMB. arXiv: https://arxiv.org/search/ Query on "Conformal cyclic cosmology"; Harvard astrophysics data system: https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/ Query on "Conformal cyclic cosmology". Along with post-1980 HBBC inflationary cosmology and other kindred counter-inflationary HBB cosmologies, it will be explored in the forthcoming Chapter V. The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation: From Where and Whence? Relevant papers will be cited in this Select Bibliography and particularly in Ch. V as required.

Cotsakis, S. & Yefremov, A. P. 2022. 100 years of mathematical cosmology: Models, theories, and problems. Part A. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 380, 20210191. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsta.2021.0191. This pair of review papers serve as an excellent short summary of the development of cosmology over the late century. Our treatment will be indebted in part to its sweep.

_____. 2022. 100 years of mathematical cosmology: Models, theories and problems. Part B. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 380, 20210171. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsta.2021.0171. This pair of review papers serve as an excellent short summary of the development of cosmology over the late century. Our treatment will be indebted in part to its sweep.

Courant, R. & Hilbert, D. 1924; 1953; 1989 (English translation from the German). Methods of Mathematical Physics. Volume I. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Wiley Interscience Publication (Wiley Classics Library). A classic reference work covering math applications in physics: Linear algebra, series expansions, linear integral equations, calculus of variations, vibration and Eigenvalue problems, calculus of variations applied to Eigenvalue problems, and Eigenvalue problems-defined special functions.

_____. 1962; 1989 (English translation from the German). Methods of Mathematical Physics. Volume II. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Wiley Interscience Publication (Wiley Classics Library). Volume II is also a classic reference book covering math applications to physics: Partial differential equations, higher order differential equations, elliptical differential equations and potential theory, and hyperbolic differential equations. 

(Non-singular) Cyclic Bouncing Cosmology (CBC): A cyclic cosmology without collapse singularities proposed and developed by Paul Steinhardt, Ana Ijjas, and colleagues especially after the Planck satellite and the BICEPS experiment failed to yield the inflationary, polarized B-modes predicted for the CMB. arXiv: https://arxiv.org/ Query on "cyclic bouncing cosmology"; Harvard astrophysics data system: https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/ Query on "cyclic bouncing cosmology". Along with post-1980 HBBC inflationary cosmology and other kindred counter-inflationary HBB cosmologies, it will be explored in the forthcoming Chapter V. The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation: From Where and Whence? Relevant papers will be cited in this Select Bibliography and particularly in Ch. V as required.

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Ekeberg, B. 2019. Metaphysical Experiments: Physics and the Invention of the Universe (Volume 49) (Posthumanities). Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press. Philosopher of multidisciplinary background who seeks to remind modern science that cosmology has always emerged from and been based on philosophy / metaphysics. His website: https://www.drbjorn.com/. At the IAI (institute of Art and Science), a September 2021 debate, "Where is physics going?" with Sabine Hossenfelder, Bjorn Ekeberg, and Sam Henry: https://youtu.be/b8npmtsfsTU. And in 2019, Scientific American article: "Cosmology has some big problems" (link).

EqWorld: The world of mathematical equations. https://eqworld.ipmnet.ru/index.htmAn excellent reference database for equations of mathematical and physical significance.

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Fearn, H. 2015. Mach's Principle, action at a distance, and cosmology. Journal of Modern Physics 2015 (6), 260. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jmp.2015.63031; http://www.scirp.org/journal/jmp. Fearn (2015) has shown that Hawking's (1965) critique that the HN theory advanced wave integral diverges at infinity leaving the HN particle field infinitely massive is false in that it does not diverge, but moreover that the cosmic event horizon (CEH) provides the natural upper bound for the HN particle field wave, and it is thus not infinite. Fearn's paper was first released in 2014 on arXiv: https://arxiv.org/abs/1412.5426v1.

Ferris, T. 1977. 1983 (2nd. ed.). The Red Limit: The Search for the Edge of the Universe. New York, NY: HarperCollins; Quill. Written between 1973 and 1977, and revised by 1983, this popular volume encapsulates the controversies in cosmology in the while not having the excitement of the ferment portrayed in Calder's 1969 volume. The CSS cosmologies are summarized rather fairly and their scientific importance and value briefed, but they are considered to have "faded away" from lack of observational support, and the controversies now surround the redshift controversies around quasars and galaxies between renegade Halton Arp and the staid advocate of conservative cosmological orthodoxy, Allan Sandage.

Field, G. B., Arp, H., & Bahcall, J. N. 1973. The Redshift Controversy (Frontiers in Physics). New York, NY: W. A. Benjamin; 324 pp. Link. This book summarizes the big 1972 debate between Arp and Bahcall over whether the extragalactic redshifts are a reliable result of the Hubble expansion or not.

Finkbeiner, A. 1999. ASTRONOMY: X-ray observatory takes to the sky. Science 285 (5428), 652. https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/science.285.5428.652.

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Fowler, W. A. & Hoyle, F. 1960. Nuclear cosmochronology. Annals of Physics 10 (2), 280-302. https://doi.org/10.1016/0003-4916(60)90025-7; https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/0003491660900257. The use of radioisotopes on the galactic level to infer models based on an autonomous model of the Milky Way galaxy in an evolutionary model (as in HBBC) and a MW galaxy interchanging galactic and intergalactic matter from beyond in a steady-state cosmology (CSSC). The former places a lower bound, but the other opens the possibility of a greater age, cf. older globular cluster ages.

Fowler, W. A. & Hoyle, F. 1964. Nucleosynthesis in massive stars and supernovae. Rare prints link. ApJ Supplement Series No 91. 148 pp. Appendix published 1960 in ApJ 132 (3).

Flesch, E., & Arp, H. 1999. Further evidence that some quasars originate in nearby galaxies: NGC 3628. Astronomy and Astrophysics, accepted. http://arxiv.org/PS_cache/astro-ph/pdf/9907/9907219.pdf; https://doi.org/10.48550/arXiv.astro-ph/9907219. Although accepted by A&A, it seems that this important and paradigm-bursting paper was never actually published in the journal, and still appears as a preprint. 

Freedman, W. L. & Madore, B. F. 2023. Progress in direct measurements of the Hubble constant. Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics (JCAP) 2023, 1-35. JCAP11(2023)050. https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1475-7516/2023/11/050/pdf. https://doi.org/10.1088/1475-7516/11/050. In this paper, following up on earlier Freedman group work, the authors claim to have made progress with red giant star data on resolving the 'Hubble tension.' Compare the works of the Adam Riess team cited below and also the discussion of both sets of results in chapter V especially and also in chapter VII.

Friedman, A. 1922. Uber die Krummung des Raumes. Z. Phys. (in German) 10 (1), 37. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01332580. In English: Friedman, A (1999). On the curvature of space. General Relativity and Gravitation 31 (12), 1991-2000. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1026751225741.

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Gaisser, T. K. 1990. Cosmic Rays and Particle Physics. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. An excellent technical volume on the physics and phenomenology of cosmic rays. A 2nd edition authored with Ralph Engel and Elisa Resconi came out in 2016, 150 more pages on the expanded progress in the field, including on ultra high energy cosmic ray (UHECR) events.

Gamow, G. 1946. Expanding universe and the origin of elements. Phys. Rev. 70, 572. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRev.70.572.2.

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____. 1952. The Creation of the Universe. New York, NY: Viking Press. The early popular account of the Big Bang cosmology which seeks to counter both the Steady State cosmology, and also the theory of stellar nucleosynthesis Hoyle pioneered in 1946 as the explanation of the origin of the heavier elements. Like Hoyle's popular works, Gamow's is also well-illustrated. Unlike Gamow, Hoyle had the propensity to argue in directions which were and are ultimately more productive of progress in the science, even when mistaken. A fundamental difference of approach to science and to cosmology was a large determining factor in the differing legacies of these two giants of 20th century cosmology.

____. 1966. Thirty Years that Shook Physics: The Story of Quantum Theory. Garden City, NY: Doubleday. A delightful summary of the development of quantum theory from Max Planck through Niels Bohr, Wolfgang Pauli, Erwin Schroedinger, Werner Heisenberg, Louis de Broglie, P. A. M. Dirac, Enrico Fermi, and Hideki Yukawa, from the rich personality of George Gamow, before the explosion of sub atomic particles and the tentative advances into quantum field theory, complete with Gamow's personal delightful drawings, illustrations, photographs, and hilarious doggerel poetry.

Geller, M. J. & Huchra, H. P. 1989. Mapping the Universe. Science 246 (4932), 897. https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/science.246.4932.897.

Gibbons, G. 2003. Phantom matter and the cosmological constant. https://arxiv.org/abs/hep-th/0302199v1; https://doi.org/10.48550/arXiv.hep-th/0302199. Considered "scalar fields with negative kinetic energy coupled to gravity" yielding relativity equations with steady state solutions where entropy or matter are continuously created or destroyed. 

Gingrich, O. Let there be light: Modern cosmology and Biblical creation. The World Treasury of Physics, Astronomy, and Mathematics (Ed. T. Ferris). Boston, MA: Little, Brown and Company.

Goedel, K. 1949. An example of a new type of cosmological solution of Einstein's field equations of gravitation. Rev. Mod. Phys. 21, 447. https://journals.aps.org/rmp/pdf/10.1103/RevModPhys.21.447.

Gold, T. & Hoyle, F. 1958. Cosmic rays and radio waves as manifestations of a hot Universe. Paris Symposium on Radio Astronomy. Ed. R. N. Bracewell, Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press; pp. 583-588. This is one of the papers where Gold & Hoyle explored a modified CSSC, where 'Hubble bubbles' of expansion occur in a larger steady state cosmos. They argued that cosmic ray observations and the radio sky could be a result of such a cosmology. In chapter XII. Infinite Universe at large & at small: A new {Aristarchan-}Copernican Revolution in time & space?, we discuss how cosmic ray data may well corroborate the macro-data for a Ambartsumian-Vorontsov-Vel'yaminov-Arp (AVVA) cosmogony of galaxies in a larger cosmology as canvassed in chapters III, V, VII, VIII, IX, and X in this history.

Gott, J. R. et al. 2005. A map of the Universe. The Astrophysical Journal 624 (2), 463. https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1086/428890.

Gurzadyan, V. G. 1985. Notes from observatories: The cosmological constant in the McCrea-Milne cosmological scheme. The Observatory 105, 42. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985Obs...105...42G.

Guth, A. H. 1981. Inflationary universe: A possible solution to the horizon and flatness problems. Phys. Rev. D23 (2), 347. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.23.347. Friedmann, Lemaitre, Gamow, and others were hypothesists of the HBBC, but Guth, Starobinsky, and Linde were among the first theorists of the HBBC (link). The HBBC begins at 'initial conditions' (singular in this case, but not necessarily so) when t = 0, looking back, as t 0, Temperature ∞, that is, undefined, for which no theory exists. 'Later' when T approximates the same order as the Planck mass, MP ≡ 1/√(G) = 1.22 x 1019 GeV or more, then the equations of the standard model are meaningless because this would require some unknown unification of quantum theory and general relativity (neither the 'stringists,' 'loopists,' nor 'twisties,' &c. have solved this). So, let's assume that T0 is somewhere safely below MP, perhaps T0 = 1017 GeV. Since T must precede T0, it follows that the HBB Cosmos is a roughly adiabatically-cooling cosmos (in thermal equilibrium) which is thus expanding according to some initial expansion constant H0 (the particular interpretation of which [Hubble] constant got us into this pickle to begin with :), as well as some unknown initial energy density, ρ0. Since the HBBC early cosmos is assumed to be homogeneous and isotropic arising from essentially massless particles in thermal equilibrium at temperature T0, when cooling from that temperature expands into at least ~1083 separate, causally disconnected regions, which have had no time to be causally-connected with each other (the horizon problem), implying that the forces generating this cosmos, the HBBC, are capable of violating causality. Furthermore, given general relativity, it is 'known' that the energy density of today's Universe (ρtoday = subscriptp) must be close to a critical value, ρcr, the boundary between a closed and an open universe. Thus, the density parameter Ω of today, generously must be in the range of 0.01 < Ωp < 10 so that Ωp ρ / ρcr = (8π/3)Gρ / H2. In a radiation-dominated cosmos, the only time frame we have for the equations is the Planck time, 1/MP = 5.4 x 10-44 sec, during which interval a typical closed cosmos would reach maximum size, and in a typical open cosmos, the energy density ρ would fade away far below ρcr. Therefore, to have our Universe in the HBBC last for ~1010 years, the initial values of ρ and H must be extremely fine-tuned to the critical density (the flatness problem). For that T0 = 1017 GeV, the 'fine tuning' would be on the order of 1 in 1055, although for lower values of T0, the 'fine tuning' would be less, but still considerable. There is still no theory to unite quantum mechanics and general relativity, and thus no physics for T >/= MP. When Guth reconfigured the history of cosmos in terms of temperature with some calculations assuming the Robertson-Walker metric (to achieve homogeneity and isotropy), he found that one could consider the entropy S of the HBBC cosmos this way where S ≡ R3s which shows the total entropy S in a spherical volume s with a radius of curvature R, where S (entropy) is conserved. Assuming that today's energy density is ρ < 10ρcr, R > (1/3)H-1 ~ 3 x 109 years, then working back from the CMB temperature today of Tγ = 2.7 K, he approximates that current Sγ > 3 x 1085, &c. That is a huge entropy. To solve the HBBC causal horizon and flatness problems, one must account for a huge entropy.  
    Inflation. To solve the causal horizon problem and the 'fine-tuning' flatness problem, Guth suggested that our assumption of adiabaticity may be hugely mistaken: Suppose instead that the present (Sp) and the initial (S0) entropy values of R3s are related by some huge volume scale (Z) as Sp = Z3S0. Given some calculations and our 'initial' value guess of T0 = 1017 GeV could yield a |ρ - ρcr |/ρ ~ 1 (order unity), then the flatness problem would be avoided if Z > 3 x 1027. Next, if we incorporate Z3 into the modified calculations so that Z > 5 x 1027, then the causal horizon problem is pushed away out beyond the observer's horizon: Solved. How to achieve all this? Now suppose in the HBBC that for a cosmos producing high entropy, the equation of state for matter (no chemical potentials) has a 1st order phase transition at critical temperature Tc, so that as the Universe cools through Tc, 'bubbles' of low temperature phase nucleate and grow. Suppose further that the nucleation rate for this secondary (2nd order) phase transition is low, then as the cosmos expands and continues cooling, the high temperature phase will 'supercool' in a process which continues down to some temperature Ts, multiple orders of magnitude below Tc. When the 2nd order phase transition occurs, 'latent heat' is released and the cosmos reheats to Tr, which is comparable in magnitude with Tc. Assuming the degrees of freedom in the two phases are comparable, there is a huge increase in entropy density of ~(Tr / Ts)3 while the value of R remains the same! So, Z ~ Tr / Ts. "If the [HBBC] universe supercools by 28 orders of magnitude below some critical temperature [i.e., Tc], the horizon and flatness problems disappear[!]" For this inflation scenario to work, with all of its many speculations, assumptions, and suppositions, the HBBC inflationary cosmos must have no strictly conserved quantities. Therefore, appealing to proposed to grand unified theories (GUTs) where baryonic number is not conserved but believed to be created via CP-violations at energies of 1013-1014 GeV, Guth suggested that as long as Tc << 1014 GeV, then baryon creation could occur after the 'reheating' of the cosmos bubble. In the years since Guth (1981), inflationary scenarios and models have undergone inflationary proliferation and modifications, including speculations about a scalar inflaton field, &c., and are now central to the modern HBBC ΛCDM paradigm. Some are challenging inflation and suggesting inflation is not fit for purpose. These issues we will examine in more detail in chapters III and V.
    Note: Alan Guth in 1981 (with his many acknowledged contributors) ironically introduced into the HBBC from an initial conditions thermodynamic, quantum approach, what was well before being considered in the CSSC models, especially with Fred Hoyle (with input from Maurice Pryce), and Jayant Narlikar from a Machian, quantum approach, the need to explicitly consider baryon creation in cosmology. By placing this issue back into an unobservable time of exponential special conditions, the inflationary HBBC has a reservoir of multiple adjustable free parameters and epicycles from which to draw. 

____. 1997. The Inflationary Universe: The Quest for a New Theory of Cosmic Crigins. Reading, MA / New York, NY / &c.: Helix Books, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.

Gurzadyan, V. G. & Penrose, R. 2010. Concentric circles in WMAP data may provide evidence of violent pre-Big-Bang activity. https://arxiv.org/abs/1011.3706.

Guthrie, B. N. & Napier, W. M. 1996. Redshift periodicity in the local supercluster. A&A 310, 353. https://articles.adsabs.harvard.edu/full/1996A%26A...310..353G.

Harvard University, online astronomical and astrophysical abstracts and papers: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/ads_abstracts.html.

Hawking, S. W. 1965. On the Hoyle-Narlikar theory of gravitation. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A 286 (1406), 313. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2415317. Fearn (2015) has shown that Hawking's (1965) critique that the HN theory advanced wave integral diverges at infinity leaving the HN particle field infinitely massive is false in that it does not diverge, but moreover that the cosmic event horizon (CEH) provides the natural upper bound for the HN particle field wave, and it is thus not infinite (i.e., does not diverge), leaving the HN theory of gravity a viable Machian theory.

____. 1975. Particle creation by black holes. Commun. Math. Phys. 43, 199. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02345020. Hawking's key paper on the interaction of quantum mechanics and general relativity in the phenomenon of 'Hawking radiation.'

____. 1988. A Brief History of Time: From the Big Bang to Black Holes. New York, NY: Bantam Books. This volume, ABHT, in both editions acknowledged respect to the CSS cosmologies by explaining that Steady State cosmology was a "good hypothesis" because it made definite predictions, and was therefore falsifiable. ABHT considered that the "radio source counts" had falsified the theory, as well as the CMB confirming the Big Bang. That neither had actually happened adds interest to our history of cosmology here, and illustrates the effect of popular works by scientists on public perceptions, both pro and against the standard HBB Cosmology.

____. 1996. The illustrated A Brief History of Time (expanded and updated ed.). New York, NY: Bantam Books.

____. 2001. The Universe in a Nutshell. New York, NY: Bantam Books.

Hawking, S. W. & Ellis, G. F. R. 1974. Large Scale Structure of Spacetime. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

H.E.S.S. The High Energy Stereoscopic System is for imaging of atmospheric Cerenkov radiation from cosmic gamma rays from 10s of GeV to 10s of TeV. H.E.S.S. is named after 1936 Nobel laureate Victor Hess, the discoverer of cosmic rays: https://www.mpi-hd.mpg.de/HESS/; located in the Khomas Highland of Namibia about 100 km SW of Windhoek, Namibia at 23o16'18" S, 16o30'00" E at 1800 m asl. There is an H.E.S.S. source catalogue; publications: https://www.mpi-hd.mpg.de/HESS/pages/publications/.

Hecht, E. 1996. Physics: Calculus. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole Publishing.

Heckmann, O. & Schucking, E. 1958. World models. Proceedings of the Solvay Conference. Brussels Stoops, 1-10.

Heeren, F. 2000. 2004. Show me God: What the Message from Space is Telling Us about God. (Rev. Ed.). Wonders, Vol. 1. Wheeling, IL: Day Star Publications. An apologetic book seeking to popularly convey the excitement of astronomy and cosmology and find parallels with Biblical fundamentalism. The too-easily-convinced skeptic in the little dialogues present is called "Fred" although it is not clear whether this is a reference to the author or obliquely to "Fred Hoyle" the dissident cosmologist, who is cited directly multiple times from pp. 26 to 381 (2000 printing) as the defender of the disproven CSSC, while interviewing and interacting with such HBBC advocates as Robert Jastrow, as well as later HBBC Nobel laureates, Robert Wilson, Arno Penzias, George Smoot, John Mather. More religious apologetist authors will be added from time to time to this select bibliography. 

Heinegg, P. 2003. Mortalism: Readings on the Meaning of Life. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Press.

Helou, G., Soifer, B. T., & Rowan-Robinson, M. 1985. Thermal infrared and nonthermal radio: Remarkable correlation in disks of galaxies. ApJ 298, L7. 

Hewett, P. C., Foltz, C. B., & Chaffee, F. H. 1995. The large bright quasar survey. 6: Quasar catalog and survey parameters (contains table of LBQS): The Astronomical Journal 109, 1498: ftp://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/pub/cats/J/AJ/109/1498/table4.

Hewitt, A. & Burbidge, G. 1993. A revised and updated catalog of quasi-stellar objects. ApJ S. 87, 451. https://heasarc.gsfc.nasa.gov/W3Browse/all/qso.html.

Hinshelwood, C. 1965. Science and scientists (A speech by the President to the British Association Meeting in Cambridge). Nature 207 (5001), 1055. https://doi.org/10.1038/2071055a0.

Hogarth, J. 1962. Cosmological considerations of the absorber theory of radiation. Proc. R. Soc. A267, 365. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspa.1962.0105.

Holder, R. D. 2013. Big Bang, Big God: A Universe designed for Life? Oxford, UK: Lion Books, Lion House. This popular apologetic book is an excellent resource on the theological implications of the cosmological theories in the 20th and 21st centuries, and was written by an Anglican Rev. Dr. who was trained at Oxford University with a DPhil in Astrophysics, pursuing postdoctoral work "researching accretion of intergalactic gas by the galaxy" (link), followed by years of working for UK Ministry of Defence contractors. He later earned a degree in Theology and has served as an academician at Oxford, a chaplain, and a parish priest. He is the author of a number of other books including on natural theology, the life and legacy of Abbé Lemaître, the father of the Big Bang, and is the recipient of the Templeton Foundation Prize for a 1998 paper on miracles. A welcome corrective to naive apologetics, Rev. Dr. Holder is a sophisticated theologian who recognizes what great theologians have often espied for centuries—the simplicity of God. He also gives his case for the triumph of the Big Bang, the probabilities and fine tuning of Nature's laws and constants for life, the inference of the Creator's mind, and the failures of "scientific naturalism," and especially the "multiverse" hypothesis as a non-design inference option (see his 2004 work, cited below). He admits early in his telling (as others have recognized) that neither the Big Bang cosmologies, nor the Steady State cosmologies are actually out of harmony with the possibility of God, but of course as a Christian theist he quickly links the triumph of theism with the Big Bang cosmology. 

____. 2004; 2016. God, the Multiverse, and Everything: Modern Cosmology and the Argument from Design. London, UK: Ashgate Publishing / Informa (Taylor & Francis); New York, NY / London, UK: Routledge.

Horgan, J. 1995. Profile: Fred Hoyle, The return of the maverick. Scientific American (March 1995), 46.

Hoskin, M. 1999. The Cambridge Concise History of Astronomy. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. 

Hoyle, F. 1938-2000. A reference archive of F. Hoyle's published papers maintained by St. John's College, Cambridge University: https://www.joh.cam.ac.uk/library/special_collections/personal_papers/hoylereprints/.

____. A web memorial of Sir Fred's life and work: https://www.hoyle.org.uk/.

____. 1970 Bruce Medalist. https://phys-astro.sonoma.edu/brucemedalists/fred-hoyle.

____. 1939. The origin of the solar system. The Observatory 62, 217. https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1939Obs....62..217H/abstract.

____. 1946. The synthesis of the elements from hydrogen. MNRAS 106 (5), 343. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/106.5.343.

____. 1948. A new model for the expanding Universe. MNRAS 108 (5), 372. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/108.5.372.

____. 1949. On the cosmological problem. MNRAS 109 (3), 365. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/109.3.365.

____. 1950. The Nature of the Universe. London, UK: Basil Blackwell.

____. 1954. On nuclear reactions occurring in very hot stars. I. The synthesis of elements from carbon to nickel. ApJS 1, 121. https://articles.adsabs.harvard.edu/full/1954ApJS....1..121H. This is the paper where famously Hoyle predicted an excess energy 7.68 MeV resonance temporary state (the 'Hoyle state') of Carbon-12, making it possible for carbon to be forged faster than it can be destroyed (and thus other light elements, like O, N, &c.) in stellar nuclear furnaces in stars by the triple-alpha process in the abundances we observe. Since the 1980s this has been cited as an 'anthropic prediction' (which it indeed was not; see Kragh, 2010 cited below), and also described by Hoyle himself as suggesting that "a superintellect had monkeyed with physics...." (Hoyle, 1981 cited below). In chapter II. Enlightenment: Ontology of the divine, we will discuss the Nature of God question more, and beyond the paltry traditionalist apologetics. Hoyle's 'outrageous prediction' (cited in link) of the elevated Carbon-12 resonance state was vindicated by data from experimental confirmation showing the resonance excess to be 7.65 MeV (Cook et al. 1957 cited above). Note. One is struck by the fact that the God of Nature seems to have endowed Prof. Hoyle with a 'superintellect' to have spotted and predicted this resonance state in the first place. 

____. 1955. 1959 edition. The Frontiers of Astronomy. New York, NY: Harper & Row, Publishers; London, UK: William Heinamann.

____. 1965. Galaxies, Nuclei, and Quasars. New York, NY: Harper & Row. This little volume gives details on the HN variable mass C-field theory (publ. 1963, 1964, 1966), and its generalization beyond the classic steady state cosmology (CSSC) into variations, cyclic (anticipating the QSSC), namely their 'radical departure' from CSSC theory, namely the so-called 'Hubble bubble[s]' within a larger Steady State Universe.

____. 1965. Recent developments in cosmology. Nature 208 (5006), 111. https://www.nature.com/articles/208111a0.

____. 1983. The Intelligent Universe. New York, NY: Holt, Rhinehart and Winston.

____. Nov 1981. The Universe: Past and present reflections. Engineering and Science. pp. 8-12. Regarding the 7.65 MeV transient resonance state ('Hoyle state') of Carbon-12 resulting from triple-alpha process in stellar nucleosynthesis, Hoyle wrote: "Would you not say to yourself, 'Some super-calculating intellect must have designed the properties of the carbon atom, otherwise the chance of my finding such an atom through the blind forces of nature would be utterly minuscule. A common sense interpretation of the facts suggests that a superintellect has monkeyed with physics, as well as with chemistry and biology, and that there are no blind forces worth speaking about in nature. The numbers one calculates from the facts seem to me so overwhelming as to put this conclusion almost beyond question'" (emphasis added). Although too often cited in a rather traditional god-of-the-gaps argument for a traditional Judeo-Christian deity, the discovery has profound implications for a more expansive natural theology. In chapter II. Enlightenment: Ontology of the divine, we will discuss the Nature of God question. 

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Hoyle, F., Burbidge, G., Narlikar, J., & Livio, M. 2000. A different approach to cosmology: From a static universe through the big bang towards reality. Physics Today 53 (12), 38. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1341928. Introducing the HBN 2000 cosmology volume cited immediately above.

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____. 1972. The mass difference of the muon and the electron. Nature 238, 86. https://doi.org/10.1038/238086a0.

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Hoyle, F. & Tayler, R. 1964. The mystery of cosmic helium abundance. Nature 203, 1108. https://doi.org/10.1038/2031108a0.

Hoyle, F. & Wickramasinghe, N. C. 1967. Impurities in interstellar grains. Nature 214, 969. https://doi.org/10.1038/214969a0. This paper proposes that properties of trace elements in interstellar grains may contribute to the thermalization of radiation, including the cosmic microwave background (CMB). This was one of the first CSSC papers to tackle the issue of the CMB, contrary to the claim that the CSSC had no explanation for the CMB.

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Hubble, E. P. & Humason, M. L. 1931. The velocity-distance relation among extra-galactic nebulae. ApJ 74, 43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/143323.

The Hubble Space Telescope. The Hubble Site resource gallery: https://hubblesite.org/resource-gallery. The Space Telescope Institute (STScI): https://www.stsci.edu/.

Humason, M. L. 1929. The large radial velocity of NGC 7619. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 15, 167. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.15.3.167.

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Hamilton, R. S. 1982. Three-manifolds with positive Ricci curvature. J. Diff. Geom. 17 (2), 255-306. https://projecteuclid.org/journals/journal-of-differential-geometry/volume-17/issue-2/Three-manifolds-with-positive-Ricci-curvature/10.4310/jdg/1214436922.full. Hamilton of course was the mathematician who laid the foundation for the breakthrough resulting in Grisha Perelman's proof of the Poincaré Theorem. Before leaving the field of mathematics, Perelman declined the prizes and accolades, and decried the pathetic state of political ethics in mathematics, pointing out that Hamilton's work was just as important as his own in proving the great Henri Poincaré's famous conjecture, to show that it is indeed a theorem in topology.

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Hamilton of course was the mathematician who laid the foundation for the breakthrough resulting in Grisha Perelman's proof of the Poincaré Theorem. Before leaving the field of mathematics, Perelman declined the prizes and accolades, and decried the pathetic state of political ethics in mathematics, pointing out that Hamilton's work was just as important as his own in proving the great Henri Poincaré's famous conjecture, to show that it is indeed a theorem in topology.

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Ijjas. A. 2018. Space-time slicing in Horndeski theories and its implications for non-singular bouncing solutions. https://arXiv:1710.05990v2.

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Inflationary HBB cosmology: A postulated epoch of cosmic exponential expansion postulated to have occurred from between 10-36 sec post-BB to ~10-32 sec post-BB to make corrections for issues in traditional HBBC, proposed in 1980 and since by Alan Guth, Andrei Linde, Paul Steinhardt, with help and development by scores of cosmologists across the decades since in tens of thousands of papers with many parameter variations. It is the most-favored paradigm underlying the modern ΛCDM HBBC. arXiv: https://arxiv.org/ Query on "inflationary cosmology"; Harvard astrophysics data system: https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/ Query on "inflationary cosmology". Along with post-1980 counter-inflationary HBB cosmologies, it will be explored in the forthcoming Chapter V. The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation: From Where and Whence? Relevant papers will be cited in this Select Bibliography and particularly in Ch. V as required.

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Jastrow, R. & Thompson, M. 1972. 1974. (2nd ed.). Astronomy: Fundamentals and Frontiers. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons. An astronomy text which discusses the 'war of the world-views' in 20th century cosmology, as it was perceived by Jastrow in the early 1970s.

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Kellermann, K. I. 1972. Radio galaxies, quasars, and cosmology. Astron. J. 77 (7), 531. https://articles.adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-iarticle_query?1972AJ.....77..531K; also published in revised and less daring form as chapter 12, "Radio galaxies and quasars" in 1974. Verschuur G. L. & Kellerman, K. I. (eds.), & by the staff of the NRAO. Galactic and Extra-Galactic Radio Astronomy. Berlin, Germany; New York, NY: Springer Verlag (link): https://ned.ipac.caltech.edu/level5/Sept04/Kellermann/paper.pdf; 1st edition, a textbook which went through a 2nd edition in 1988, and a third edition in 1991. The primary candid paper by radio astronomer Kellermann summarized the extragalactic radio sources data as of 1972 in (a) the radio sources counts, (b) the spectral index-distance relation, (c) the angular size-distance relation, and (d) the apparent motions of out-ward expanding radio sources (cf. 'superluminal' motions). He spots a series of paradoxes, either (i) the relations are just so as to appear to fit the cosmological models, or (ii) they do not appreciably depart from a Euclidean Universe just beyond the classic steady state cosmology (CSSC). Kellermann opines that to make adjustments to fit an evolutionary cosmology (like the HBBC) may be "too many epicycles" and that there is evidence that many of these redshifts are not at cosmological H0 distances. By 1974, the paper had been considerably domesticated, and the cosmological implications for world models essentially removed. In 1974, Sir Martin Ryle was co-awarded the Nobel Prize with Martin Hewish for contributions to radio astronomy, including radio source counts which supposedly pointed to an evolutionary (Big Bang) cosmos. We know now that these radio source count data in fact did not in fact confirm an evolutionary cosmos. See Das Gupta, P. 1988. Non-Evolving Luminosity Functions for Radio Galaxies. Ph. D. Dissertation. Bombay University: Bombay, India; and Das Gupta, P., Narlikar, J. V., & Burbidge, G. R. 1988. The counting of radio sources: Is evolution necessary? ApJ 95, 5. https://articles.adsabs.harvard.edu/pdf/1988AJ.....95....5D; cf. Kellermann, K. I. &  Wall, J. V. 1987. Chapter IX. The distribution of radio sources: Radio source counts and their interpretation. Symposium - International Astronomical Union 124, 545; https://doi.org/10.1017/S0074180900159546; published online at Cambridge: Radio source counts and their interpretation document in PDF.

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Lemaitre, G. 1927. A homogeneous Universe of constant mass and increasing radius accounting for the radial velocity of extra-galactic nebulae, Annales de la Societe Scientifique de Bruxelles XLVII A, 49. A Roman Catholic priest of the fraternal order of the Friends of Jesus or the Society of Jesus (Jesuits), the young Fr. Georges Lemaître SJ presents a very sympathetic figure (to me personally) in that his early internal sciences / faith journey caused him to seek scientific elements in Scripture. Over time, his science / faith views matured in part because of his interactions with Sir Arthur Eddington and other scientists, so that he grew to distinguish between the sciences and his faith, a process helped by his earning degrees in mathematics and physics at the same time as he finished a baccalaureate in Thomistic philosophy at Universite Catholique de Louvain (Belgium). In so doing, he wisely began to "differentiate theological creation from the Universe's natural beginning." From the Universite Catholique de Louvain archives:  https://archives.uclouvain.be/exhibits/show/georges-lemaitre-en/beginning-or-creation. Later mid-20th century, Lemaitre sought to temper the early, exuberant, triumphalistic embrace of the incipient hot Big Bang cosmology (HBBC) by Pope Pius XII as discussed in chapter III

Lewis, G. F. & Barnes, L. A. 2016; 2020 (new edition). A Fortunate Universe: Life in a Finely Tuned Cosmos. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Essentially based on the Big Bang (HBBC) cosmology, these authors argue in a popular format that the Universe is fine-tuned for the formation of complex molecularity and of life, as part of an apologetic for the existence of a rather traditional conception of God. Such apologetics share the quality that they rely on arguments derived in large part from the HBBC. Anyone who wishes the soundly vindicate the infinity of the divine (beyond the confines of the dominant traditions) will not rely so closely on a particular cosmological model.

Lewis, G. F. & Brewer, B. J. 2023. Detection of the cosmological time dilation of high-redshift quasars. Nat Astron. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41550-023-02029-2. This paper fresh out in July of 2023 publishes evidence of time dilation in 190 high-z quasars. The authors argue that the independence of QSO redshift from QSO variability can be dismissed as a challenge to the "standard cosmological model" and they claim their analysis confirms that QSOs are "truly cosmologically distant sources." Of course, with all the evidence of QSOs associated with more local galaxies, associated time-dilations with high-z QSOs could also be consistent with non-cosmological component to redshifts such as in the apparent ejections of what we've called the Ambartsumian-Vorontsov-Vel'yaminov-Arp (AVVA) cosmogony (see chapter IX).

Linde, A. D. 1982. A new inflationary universe scenario: A possible solution of the horizon, flatness, homogeneity, isotropy and primordial monopole problems, Phys. Lett. B. 108, 389. https://doi.org/10.1016/0370-2693(82)91219-9.

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Lineweaver, C. H. 1999. A younger age for the Universe. Science 284 (5419), 1503. https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/science.284.5419.1503.

Livio, M. 2013. Brilliant blunders: How the Big Bang beat out the Steady State Universe. https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/article/brilliant-blunders/. A popular internet article on the 'triumph' of the Big Bang over the Steady State cosmologies, with confidence missing some of the very facts which show that the scientific data conflicts between HBBC and the CSSC were actually wrongly understood to be decisive.

Lovell, A. C. B. & Lovell, M. J. 1963. Discovering the Universe. New York, NY: Harper & Row.

López Corredoira, M. & Castro Perelman, C. (eds). 2008. Against the Tide: A Critical Review by Scientists of How Physics and Astronomy Get Done. 189 pp. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/28765233.

Maddox, J. 1994. OpEd: The return of cosmological creation [a review of QSSC papers then emerging]. Nature 371, 11.

Martin, M. & Augustine, K. 2015. The Myth of an Afterlife: The Case against Life after Death. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group.

Mather, J. C. et al. 1990. A preliminary measurement of the cosmic microwave background spectrum by the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite. ApJ 354, L37. https://articles.adsabs.harvard.edu/pdf/1990ApJ...354L..37M.

Mather, J. C. et al. 1994. Measurement of the Cosmic Microwave Background spectrum by the COBE FIRAS instrument. ApJ 420, 439. https://articles.adsabs.harvard.edu/pdf/1994ApJ...420..439M.

Mayo, B. 1942. Jefferson himself, "The whimsies and jargon of Plato." University Press of Virginia. It is important to notice that Jefferson on Plato is indebted in part to Voltaire.

McCrea, W. H. 1935. Observable relations in relativistic cosmology. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1935ZA......9..290M.

____. 1951. Relativity theory and the creation of matter. MNRAS 206 (1087), 562. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspa.1951.0089.

____. 1953a. The rate of accretion of matter by stars. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1953MNRAS.113..162M.

____. 1953b. Book review: Modern Cosmology and the Christian Idea of God. By E. A. Milne. Pp. 160. 21s. 1952. (Oxford University Press). The Mathematical Gazette 37 (320), 137-139. https://doi.org/10.2307/3608962.

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____. 1960. The origin of the solar system. Proc. Royal Soc. of London, A 256 (1285), 245. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2413945

____. 1964. Extended main-sequence of some stellar clusters. MNRAS 128, 148. https://adsabs.harvard.edu/full/1964MNRAS.128..147M.

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McKintosh, C. G. B. 1970. A generalized Hoyle-Narlikar particle theory. Nature 226, 339. https://doi.org/10.1038/226339a0.

McKellar, A. 1940. Evidence for the molecular origin of some hitherto unidentified interstellar lines. Pub. Astr. Soc. Pacific 52 (307), 187. https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1940PASP...52..187M/abstract. Some of the earliest evidences of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation, long before 1965 with Penzias and Wilson. 

____. 1941. Molecular lines from the lowest states of diatomic molecules composed of atoms probably present in interstellar space. Publications of the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory (Vancouver, B.C., Canada) 7 (6), 251. https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1941PDAO....7..251M/abstract. Some of the earliest evidences of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation, long before 1965 with Penzias and Wilson. 

Meyer, S. C. 2023. Return of the God Hypothesis: Three Scientific Discoveries that Reveal the Mind Behind the Universe. New York, NY: HarperOne, an imprint of HarperCollins Publishers. Religio-philosophical-political think-tank Discovery Institute (https://www.discovery.org/) philosopher of science, Stephen Meyer in this volume, aside from the misbegotten claim that modern science had 'Judeo-Christian origins' rather than Enlightenment and precursor origins (see also entries under historian of classical antiquity Richard Carrier), argues that three general discoveries show the existence of a traditional Judeo-Christian deity: (1) the discovery of the Hubble distance relation and the Big Bang theory, (2) evidences for fine-tuning based on the HBBC, and (3) explosions of 'information' in biological evolution, of which the 'Cambrian explosion' is taken as paradigmatic. Using a god-of-the-gaps approach routine for his think-tank, Meyer bases his cosmological arguments in great degree upon the HBBC, along with its various weaknesses and epicycles. In biology, Meyer argues that the mystery of the origin of life requires a tinkering, interfering transcendent deity, an argument we will examine further detail in forthcoming chapter XIII. Worlds aplenty: Evolution of stellar planetary systems & the cosmic origins of life. Surprisingly on this point, Meyer in a recent video-linked interview with Piers Morgan seems to deny divine plenitude by suggesting that life may only be on Earth (following an older 'rare Earth' hypothesis) rather than teeming throughout the vastness of the Universe—a point which seems to have Christian anthropocentricity as its theological motivation. Furthermore, he cites Sir Fred Hoyle an atheist as pointing out an implication of divine fine-tuning in one of the constants of Nature, not pointing out that Sir Fred's atheism was 'shaken' not by an Big Bang-related argument. This is a loose reference to the so-called 'The Hoyle state: A primordial nucleus behind the elements of life' (Scientific American link) where in 1953, given the abundance of carbon in the Universe (in light of Hoyle's theory of the nuclear fusion of chemical elements in stellar interiors and explosions, for which Willy Fowler won the 1983 Nobel Prize), Hoyle predicted an excess energy ~7.68 MeV resonance temporary state (the 'Hoyle state') of Carbon-12 making it possible for carbon to be forged faster than it can be destroyed (and thus other light elements, like O, N, &c.) in stellar nuclear furnaces in stars in the abundances we observe (Hoyle, 1954 cited above; see also Hoyle, 1981 cited). This amazing discovery was made precisely because of Hoyle's skepticism about the Big Bang. On discovery (3) which Meyer cites, one must say that the greatest number of the adaptive radiation and evolution of novel genera after great extinctions in Earth's history came not during the 'Cambrian explosion' but after later mass extinctions, and neglects the immense creativity of the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event (COBE), and the post-Cretaceous-Tertiary adaptive radiation, among others. If one is seeking insights into the divine or the God of Nature, then there are clues in the repeated recurrence of the ανάσταση of new forms of life after these mass death events (cf. chapter II. Enlightenment: Ontology of the divine, as well as the Enlightenment Legacy homepage https://enlightenmentlegacy.net/, and forthcoming sections of the overall website) .  

Mills, B. Y. & Slee, O. B. 1957. A preliminary survey of radio sources in a limited region of the sky at a wavelength of 3.5 m. Austr. J. Phys. 10, 162. https://doi.org/10.1071/PH570162.

Milne, E. A. 1935. Relativity Gravitation and World-Structure. Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press. https://archive.org/details/dli.ernet.7948/page/n9/mode/2up. An alternative cosmological model which incorporated special but not general relativity.

____. 1948. Kinematic Relativity: A Sequel to Relativity, Gravitation and World Structure. Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press. Further development of Milne's cosmological model.

____. 1952. Modern Cosmology and the Christian Idea of God. Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press. In this posthumous work, Prof. Milne argues that all the laws of the Universe arise not from arbitrary empiricisms but from reason, inferring that a rational Being, a creating deity exists behind the Universe. See book review in the September, 1953 issue of the Scottish Journal of Theology 6 (3), 312-313. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0036930600056271. For Prof. Milne, this was the Christian deity. The book was also reviewed by Alfred W. Painter in the April, 1953 issue of The Journal of Religion 33 (2), 156. https://doi.org/10.1086/484426. For a scientific review, please see Prof. McCrea's 1953 review of the book cited in this bibliography.

Mitton, S. 2011. Fred Hoyle: A Life in Science. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

____. 2005. Conflict in the cosmos: The Hoyle-Ryle clashes. Astronomical Society, DPS meeting #37, id.37.03; Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society 37, 702. https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005DPS....37.3703M/abstract.

Mitton, S., & Ryle, M. 1977. The Cambridge University Encyclopaedia of Astronomy. New York, NY: Crown Publishers.

Misner, C. W., Thorne, K. S., & Wheeler, J. A. 1973. Gravitation. New York, NY: W. H. Freeman. This massive volume is the comprehensive explication of modern gravitational theory as interpreted in general relativity.

Morgan, J. & Tian, G. 2007. Completion of the proof of the Geometrization Conjecture. https://arxiv.org/abs/0809.4040. A completion of the proof of Poincaré's Theorem, done in outline by Perelman (2002a, 2002b, & 2003); building on the work of R. S. Hamilton (1982, 1993, 1995, 1997, 1999) also in this bibliography.

Motz, L. 1975. The Universe: Its Beginning and End. New York, NY: Charles Scribner's Sons. 

____. & Nathanson, C. 1988. The Constellations: An Enthusiast's Guide to the Night Sky. New York, NY / London, UK / &c.: Doubleday.

A Mathematical Interpretation of Hawking�s Black Hole Theory by Ri Munitz, M. K. (ed.). 1957. Theories of the Universe: From Babylonian Myth to Modern Science (The Library of Scientific Thought). New York, NY: The Free Press, A Division of Simon & Schuster. https://archive.org/details/theoriesofuniver0000unse/page/n5/mode/2up. This anthology was assembled right in the midst of the 'war of the world-views' controversy between the HBBC and the CSSC, furnishing not only a history including the ancient Babylonians, but also the Ionian cosmologists, the cosmologists of the Copernican Revolution and the Enlightenment, as well as the contemporary contestants alive and active in 1957: Georges Lemaître, George Gamow, Hermann Bondi, Dennis Sciama, and Fred Hoyle, among others. 

Nadathur, S. & Crittenden, R. 2016. A detection of the integrated Sachs-Wolfe imprint of cosmic superstructures using a matched-filter approach. https://arxiv.org/abs/1608.08638. ApJL 830 (1), L19. https://doi.org/10.3847/2041-8205/830/1/L19

Nancy Grace Roman Space Telescope: WFIRST, the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope. https://www.nasa.gov/content/goddard/about-nancy-grace-roman-space-telescope; https://roman.gsfc.nasa.gov/; gallery of scientific simulations: https://roman.gsfc.nasa.gov/gallery-scientific_simulations.html.

Narlikar, J. V. 1962. Neutrinos and the arrow of time in cosmology. Proc. R. Soc. A270, 553. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspa.1962.0244.

____. 1965. An unsteady Universe? New Scientist, June 17, 771-773.

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____. 1977. Two astrophysical applications of conformal gravity. Annals of Physics 107, 325. https://doi.org/10.1016/0003-4916(77)90214-7.

____. 1977. Quantum uncertainty in the final state of gravitational collapse. Nature 269, 129. https://www.nature.com/articles/269129a0; http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/269129a0.

____. 1981. Quantum conformal fluctuations near the classical space-time singularity. Found. Phys. 11 (5-6), 473. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00727076.

____. 1984. The vanishing likelihood of spacetime singularity in quantum conformal cosmology. Found. Phys. 14, 443. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00738811.

____. 1984. Nonconservation of baryons in cosmology—revisited. J. Astrophys. Astr. 5, 67. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984JApA....5...67N.   

____. 1993. Introduction to Cosmology (2nd ed., Foreward by F. Hoyle). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. 415 pp. (3rd ed. includes treatment of the newer QSSC).

____. 2002. An Introduction to Cosmology (third edition). UK: Cambridge. This text on cosmology is a classic, which fairly treats on the various cosmological models of the 20th to early 21st century, and complete with questions and problems for graduate and undergraduate students, by one of the giants of modern cosmology. 

____. 2010. An Introduction to Relativity. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

____. 2015. Trials and tribulations of playing the devil's advocate. Res. Astron. Astrophys. 15, 1. https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1674-4527/15/1/001. Narlikar reveals how he even as a graduate student got pulled into the cosmological conflicts of the day, the 'war of the world-views,' and how that set the direction of his long career as an astrophysicist and cosmologist.

____. 2016. My Tale of Four Cities. Autobiography published by National Book Trust, India. 

____. 2018. The evolution of modern cosmology as seen through a personal walk across six decades. European Physics Journal H 43, 43. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1140/epjh/e2017-80048-5.

____. 2021. Three pathbreaking papers of 1966 revisited: their relevance to certain aspects of cosmological creation today. European Physics Journal H 46, 21. https://doi.org/10.1140/epjh/s13129-021-00025-6.

Narlikar, J. V. & Burbidge, G. 2008. Facts and Speculations in Cosmology. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. This book is a non-technical followup book by Cambridge to Hoyle, Burbidge, & Narlikar's 2000 A Different Approach to Cosmology, which they point out, as a "book was quite well received by astronomers and physicists (but of course, not standard cosmologists!)" Facts and Speculations raises the issue of anomalous observational data showing ejection and expansion phenomena within galaxies and clusters of galaxies including discordant redshifts, which don't fit into the standard prevailing paradigm of the expanding universe Big Bang cosmology with gravitational coalescence of galaxies and clusters. Narlikar & Burbidge review again the history of cosmology from earliest times and show that anomalous data in cosmology (as Kuhn described) forced established paradigms into crises and changes of paradigm. By confusing facts and unobserved speculations about the 'early universe' within the Big Bang paradigm, standard cosmologists have assumed the Big Bang then ignored the anomalous data sets, because they are assumed to be impossible, given the discovery of the CMB and CMB fluctuations. Beginning with ancient creation myths, including those of world beginnings, endings, and cycles, moving up through the epicyclic cosmology of the Greek Ptolemaics, to the widening horizon in space and time of the Universe as viewed in the history of astronomy over the centuries, Narlikar and Burbidge argue that the observational data (as before) is such that there are serious problems with the prevailing Big Bang paradigm (what we call the New Ptolemaic System) and that there is room to propose an alternative cyclic cosmology of a cosmos without beginning nor end, for which they argue with their tentative QSSC proposal. In brief, "this book shows that the mystery of the origin of the Universe is far from being solved," despite the confidence of standard cosmologists.

Narlikar, J. V. & Chitre, S. M. 1977. Applications of statistical techniques to the angular size - Flux density relation for extragalactic radio sources. MNRAS 180, 525. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/180.4.525.

Narlikar, J. V. & Das, P. A. 1975. QSO redshifts and the steady state cosmology. Nature 258, 660. https://doi.org/10.1038/258660a0.

Narlikar, J. V., Edmunds, M., & Wickramasinghe, C. 1976. Limits on a microwave background without the big bang. Far Infrared Astronomy. Ed. M. Rowan Robinson. Pergamon, pp. 131-142.

Narlikar, J. V. & Kembhavi, A. 1980. Non-Standard Cosmologies. Fund. Cos. Phys., 6, 1-186. https://www.osti.gov/etdeweb/biblio/5281397.

Narlikar, J. V. & Khembavi, A. K. 1988. The non-standard cosmologies. In Canuto, V.N. & Elmegreen, B. G. (eds.). Handbook of Astronomy Astrophysics and Geophysics, Volume II: Galaxies and Cosmology , pp. 301-498; (https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=S7avUXmRTKkC&oi=fnd&pg=PA301&ots=Rr4NbPX0m_&sig=AjcYDCroOHBYac9o37jNB-w4yEw#v=onepage&q&f=false). New York, NY: Gordon and Breach, Science Publishers, Inc.

Narlikar, J. V. & Padmanabhan, T. 1985. Creation-field cosmology: A possible solution to singularity, horizon, and flatness problems. Physical Review D 32 (8), 1928. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.32.1928.

Narlikar, J. V. & Ramadurai, S. 1976. New test of the cosmological nature of QSO redshifts. Nature 264, 732. https://doi.org/10.1038/264732a0.

Narlikar, J. V. & Rana, N. C. 1979. Hawking process and the cosmic microwave background in a steady state universe. Physics Letters A 72 (2), 75. https://doi.org/10.1016/0375-9601(79)90651-0. Narlikar & Rana explored whether black hole Hawking radiation is adequate to provide the CMB in a steady state cosmology, and found that it could not. Although we know now that the steady state cosmologies already provide the CMB black body of the precise temperature observed in our skies. Also, if one makes general relativity scale-invariant and makes use of Mach's Principle (as in the Hoyle-Narlikar, 1964, &c.) it is not necessary to depend on such a process. 

____. 1983. Cosmic Microwave Background spectrum in the Hoyle-Narlikar cosmology. Physics Letters 99A (2,3), 75. https://doi.org/10.1016/0375-9601(83)90927-1

Narlikar, J. V., Vishwakarma, R. G., Burbidge, G.,  & Hoyle, F. 2001. Small scale fluctuations of the microwave background radiation in the quasi-steady state cosmology. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/ads_abstracts.html.

Narlikar, J. V., Vishwakarma, R. G., Hajian, A., Souradeep, T., Burbidge, G.,  & Hoyle, F. 2002. Inhomogeneities in the microwave background radiation interpreted within the framework of the quasi-steady state cosmology. http://arXiv.org/PS_cache/astro-ph/pdf/0211/0211036.pdf.

Narlikar, J. V., Vishwakarma, R. G., Burbidge, G. 2002. Interpretations of the Accelerating Universe. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 114, 1092. http://arXiv.org/PS_cache/astro-ph/pdf/0205/0205064.pdf.

Narlikar, J. V. & Wickramasinghe, N. C. 1967. Microwave background in a Steady-State Universe. Nature 216, 43. https://doi.org/10.1038/216043a0.

The National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO): http://www.nrao.edu.

NED: NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database. https://ned.ipac.caltech.edu/.

Neff, M. L. 1952. The Glory of the Stars. Mountain View, CA: Pacific Press Publishing Association. A Ph.D. from a small Protestant denomination, Seventh-day Adventists, published this confessional book, glorying in modern astronomy, citing a personal creator, multiple scriptures, and numerous poets (including Alfred Noyes, 1922), starting with the Greeks, and moving through various discoveries of the 17th - 18th century astronomers, up into the first half of the 20th century. Although such luminaries as Harlow Shapley, Sir James Jeans, Fred Whipple, and others are cited, one mention of the "Einstein theory," and there is no mention of the cosmology debates between the CSSM and HBBC which were well underway in 1952. In fact, in the chapter on Earth, there was no discussion of a "young Earth" because "young earth creationism" was still a decade in the future of American consciousness.

Noyes, A. 1922. The Torch-bearers: Watchers of the Sky. New York, NY: Frederick A. Stokes Co. Publishers. A long and wistful commemorative poem on the history of great astronomers and their search for the Universe. Internet Archive and free electronic copy.

Olcott, W. T. 1911. Star Lore of All Ages: A Collection of Myths, Legends, and Facts Concerning the Constellations of the Northern Hemisphere. New York, NY / London, UK: G. P. Putnam's Sons. The Knickerbocker Press.

O'Leary, M. R. Anaxagoras and the Origin of Panspermia Theory. Bloomington, IN: iUniverse. Documents how Greek Enlightenment philosophers in the 5th century BCE first thought of life itself as natural product of the Universe, not even centered on Earth, the theory of panspermia. 

O'Raifeartaigh, C., McCann, B., Nahm, W., & Mitton, S. 2014. Einstein's steady-state theory: An abandoned model of the cosmos. Eur. Phys. J. H 39, 353. https://arxiv.org/abs/1402.0132.

OpEd. 1969. News and views: Electrodynamics and the Universe. Nature 222, 1027. https://doi.org/10.1038/2221027a0. Steady State Cosmology and quantum electrodynamics without ugly infinities & renormalizations?

OpEd. 1970. Quantum Electrodynamics: Gravity's role in removing infinities. Nature 228, 1029. https://doi.org/10.1038/2281029b0. Congruence between Isham, Salam, & Strathdee & the Hoyle-Narlikar theory of conformal gravity and contributions to quantum electrodynamics.

OpEd. 1971. Nonviolent redshifts in galaxies. Nature 234, 505. https://doi.org/10.1038/234505a0.

OpEd. 1971. Scale invariance and gravitation. Nature 234, 1. https://doi.org/10.1038/physci234001a0

OpEd. 1972. Elementary particles and cosmology. Nature 238, 69. https://doi.org/10.1038/238069a0.

OpEd. 1972. Are quasars and galaxies associated. Nature 238, 97. https://doi.org/10.1038/physci238097b0.

OpEd. 1972. Steady state obituary? Nature 240, 439. https://doi.org/10.1038/240439a0.

OpEd. 1973. Singularities and the C field. Nature 242, 556. https://doi.org/10.1038/242556b0.

OpEd. 1973. Quasistellar objects: Are all QSOs in the nuclei of galaxies? Nature 242, 18. https://doi.org/10.1038/242018a0.

OpEd. 1973. Spin, torsion, and gravitational singularities. Nature 242, 18. https://doi.org/10.1038/242018b0.

OpEd. 1974. Weight-watching. Scientific American 56. May be within the archive for 1974: https://www.scientificamerican.com/archive/issues/1974/. On possible variations in the gravitational constant G.

OpEd. 1990. Big Bang hypothesis. Nature 346, 780. https://doi.org/10.1038/346780a0.

OpEd. 1994. Holes in the Big Bang. Nature 372, 16. https://doi.org/10.1038/372016a0. Reviews BB problems & QSSC in light of CSSC and HBBC.

OpEd by Clara Moskowitz. 2013. Puzzling measurement of "big G" gravitational constant ignites debate. Scientific American (Sept 2013). https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/puzzling-measurement-of-big-g-gravitational-constant-ignites-debate-slide-show/.

Osterbrock, D.E. 1994. Book review: Observational cosmologist: Edwin Hubble, the discoverer of the Big Bang universe. Nature 367, 423. https://doi.org/10.1038/367423a0.

Padmanabhan, T. & Vasanti, M. M. 1982. Can the curvature effects be neglected in the early universe? Phys. Lett. 89A, 327. https://doi.org/10.1016/0375-9601(82)90184-0.

Page, T. & Page, L. W. (eds.). 1969. Beyond the Milky Way: Galaxies, Quasars, and the New Cosmology. Volume 8, MacMillan Sky and Telescope Library of Astronomy. London, UK / Ontario, Canada: The MacMillan / Collier-MacMillan Canada Ltd. This excellent volume parallels the surprising openness of the
Calder, N. 1969. Violent Universe: An eyewitness account of the New Astronomy book with the "Violent Universe" documentary, cited above, on the controversies in cosmology, and will be cited extensively in the forthcoming Chapter III, "The Hubble Relation and the expanding Universe: 'The War of the World-Views' and the slide toward a new Ptolemaic system? (1929-2013)."  Among its authors for the compiled articles in Sky & Telescope magazine treating of the controversies with a greater frankness than any popular publications today are articles by George Abell, Percy Witherell, George Mumford, and Otto Struve, among others. Similar to Caldwell's and the TV documentary series' celebration of the 'new astronomy,' Page & Page celebrate the 'new cosmology' and both take serious cognizance of the controversy over cosmological theories.   

Panspermia: An online resource of research on the cosmic ancestry of life on Earth: https://www.panspermia.org/index.htm.

Pecker, J.-C., Narlikar, J. V. (eds.). 2006. Current Issues in Cosmology. Volume contains the proceedings of the Colloquium, "Cosmology: Facts and Problems," 08-11 June 2004 at College de France, Paris, France. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Available online: ResearchGate link. Info on volume: www.cambridge.org/9780521858984.

Pecker, J.-C., Roberts, A. P., Vigier, J. P. 1972. Non-velocity redshifts and photon-photon interactions. Nature 237, 227. https://doi.org/10.1038/237227a0. This paper pursues a further possible explanation of anomalous galactic redshifts, going beyond Hoyle & Narlikar (1971), based on inelastic photon-photon interactions.

Pecker, J.-C., Tait, W., Vigier, J. P. 1972. Photon mass, quasar redshifts, and other abnormal redshifts. Nature 241, 338. https://doi.org/10.1038/241338b0

Peebles, P. J. E., Schramm, D. N., Turner, E. L., & Kron, R. G. 1991. The case for the hot relativistic big bang cosmology. Nature 352, 769.

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Peebles, P. J. E., Seldner, M., & Soneira, R. M. 1977. The clustering of galaxies. Scientific American, p. 76. https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/the-clustering-of-galaxies/.

Pegg, D. 1968. Cosmology and electrodynamics. Nature 220, 154. https://doi.org/10.1038/220154a0. As Hoyle & Narlikar (1968b) show, Pegg critiques the HN theory by mixing up the calculations and consequences of a quantum field theory and their direct particle action theory in a perfectly absorbing Universe, such as predicted by the CSSC but not by the open FLRW cosmologies. An unnecessary foray into confused nonsense.

Penrose, R. 2004. The Road to Reality: A Complete Guide to the Laws of the Universe. New York, NY: Random House, Vintage Books. This is one of the best comprehensive and mathematically-thorough introductions to the epistemology of essential maths and physics, as well as to modern maths, physics, and cosmology, with their frontiers.

____. 2010; 2011; 2012. Cycles of Time: An Extraordinary New View of the Universe. London, UK: Random House Group, Bodley Head; New York, NY: Random House, Alfred A. Knopf; New York, NY: Random House, Vintage Books. Publishers listed in order of publication year. Exposition of the Cyclic Conformal Cosmology, well-illustrated in the 2012 edition. 

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This series of three papers by Perelman are an outline of the proof of the Poincaré Theorem. In 2006 and 2010, Perelman turned down, respectively, the Fields Medal and the Clay Millennium Prize in Mathematics, arguing in part that he had done no more than his mathematical predecessor Richard S. Hamilton (1982, 1993, 1995, 1997, 1999) in solving the Poincaré Theorem. In so doing, he did the opposite of some famous pioneers who aggregated undue credit to themselves. For a completion of the proof, see Morgan & Tian (2007) linked in this bibliography.

____. 2002b. Ricci flow with surgery on three-manifolds. https://arxiv.org/abs/math/0303109. This series of three papers by Perelman are an outline of the proof of the Poincaré Theorem. In 2006 and 2010, Perelman turned down, respectively, the Fields Medal and the Clay Millennium Prize in Mathematics, arguing in part that he had done no more than his mathematical predecessor Richard S. Hamilton (1982, 1993, 1995, 1997, 1999) in solving the Poincaré Theorem. In so doing, he did the opposite of some famous pioneers who aggregated undue credit to themselves. For a completion of the proof, see Morgan & Tian (2007) linked in this bibliography. 

____. 2003. Finite extinction time for the solutions to the Ricci flow on certain three manifolds. https://arxiv.org/abs/math/0307245. This series of three papers by Perelman are an outline of the proof of the Poincaré Theorem. In 2006 and 2010, Perelman turned down, respectively, the Fields Medal and the Clay Millennium Prize in Mathematics, arguing in part that he had done no more than his mathematical predecessor Richard S. Hamilton (1982, 1993, 1995, 1997, 1999) in solving the Poincaré Theorem. In so doing, he did the opposite of some famous pioneers who aggregated undue credit to themselves. For a completion of the proof, see Morgan & Tian (2007) linked in this bibliography.

Perlmutter, S., Aldering, G., Valle, M. et al. 1997 (https://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/9712212); 1998. Discovery of a supernova explosion at half the age of the Universe. Nature 391, 51. https://doi.org/10.1038/34124. Perlmutter, S., Aldering, G., Valle, M. et al. 1998. Erratum: Discovery of a supernova explosion at half the age of the Universe. Nature 392, 311. https://doi.org/10.1038/32711; because they left out author, A. Goobar. This group comprised The Supernova Cosmology Project (SCP) which helped with the group around Adam Riess (High-Z Supernova Search Team) that the Universe expansion seems to accelerating.

Perlmutter, S., Aldering, G., Goldhaber, R. A. et al. 1998 (https://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/9812133); 1999. Measurements of Omega and Lambda from 42 high-redshift supernovae. ApJ 517 (2), 565. https://doi.org/10.1086/307221. Part of the endeavors of The Supernova Cosmology Project (SCP).

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Poincaré, Jules Henri. 1854-1912. One of the greatest (and most neglected) polymath geniuses in the history of math, physics, and the philosophy of science, including contributions to celestial mechanics, topology, chaos theory, and notably to special and general relativity. We intend to remedy the injustices by giving him the credit he deserves as one of the most original thinkers since Newton. In so doing, also will be remedied Poincaré's neglect in the record of this website. {Added references to follow....}. The references to be added here and Poincaré's contributions, which will be added in chapter I, will seek to delineate the pioneering contributions which he made for which credit has too often been assigned elsewhere.

Pomarede, D., Tully, R. B., Graziani, R., Courtois, H. M., Hoffman, Y., Lezmy, J. 2020. Cosmicflows-3: The South Pole Wall. ApJ 897 133. https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.3847/1538-4357/ab9952.

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Protheroe, W. M., Capriotti, E. R., Newsom, G. H. 1989, 1984, 1981, 1979. Exploring the Universe (4th edition). Merrill Publishing, A Bell & Howell Information Company: Columbus, OH. A college text book in astronomy, in its 4th edition, has in chapter 23, "Cosmology—The origin, structure, and evolution of the Universe" a serious discussion of the controversy over cosmological models of the Big Bang and the Steady State.

Proust, D., Quintana, H., Carrasco, E., et al. 2006. The Shapley Supercluster: The largest matter concentration in the local Universe. ESO Messenger 124, 30. http://www.eso.org/sci/publications/messenger/archive/no.124-jun06/proust.pdf.

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Riess, A. G., et al. 2022. A comprehensive measurement of the local value of the Hubble constant with 1 km/s/Mpc uncertainty from the Hubble Space Telescope and the SH0ES team. (arXiv release v1 on 08 Dec 2021; v3 on 18 Jul 2022: https://arxiv.org/abs/2112.04510). 2022. A comprehensive measurement of the local value of the Hubble constant with 1 km s−1 Mpc−1 uncertainty from the Hubble Space Telescope and the SH0ES team. ApJL 934 (1), L7. https://doi.org/10.3847/2041-8213/ac5c5b.

Riess, A. G., et al. 2023. (arXiv release 28 Jul 2023: https://arxiv.org/abs/2307.15806). Crowded no more: The accuracy of the Hubble constant tested with high-resolution observations of Cepheids by JWST. ApJL 956 (1), L18. https://doi.org/10.48550/arXiv.2307.15806.

Riess, A. G., et al. 2024. JWST observations reject unrecognized crowding of Cepheid photometry as an explanation for the Hubble Tension at 8σ confidence. (arXiv: https://arxiv.org/abs/2401.04773). ApJ Letters 962 (1), L17. https://doi.org/10.3847/2041-8213/ad1ddd.

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Ross, H. 1991. The Fingerprint of God (2nd ed.). Orange, CA: Promise Publishing Company.

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Sagan, C. 1985. Cosmos. New York, NY: Ballantine Books. Carl Sagan (who as a younger scientist and populariser had narrated in part the 1969 TV series "The Violent Universe," referenced under Caldwell, 1969 above) during the public controversy between the Big Bang and the Steady State; as well as helping advance planetary exploration of our solar system via NASA and JPL: also in 1980 hosted his own immensely popular and successful series, "Cosmos: A personal journey" (archive). Billions of people saw Sagan in this public expounder role. The series has since been updated as "Cosmos: A space odyssey" hosted by Neil deGrass Tyson (link).

Sandage, A. 1963. Photoelectric observations of the interacting galaxies VV 117 and VV 123 related to the time of formation of their satellites. ApJ 138, 863S. https://www.adsabs.harvard.edu/full/1963ApJ...138..863S. Interesting because Sandage here cites evidence of explosive ejection-origin of companion galaxies following the Ambartsumian-Arp cosmogony (also advocated by Vorontsov-Vel'yaminov) in arguing against the CSSC, which had galaxies condensing out of the intergalactic medium.

Sandage, A. & Bedke, J. 1994. The Carnegie Atlas of Galaxies. (Vols. I & II). Washington, DC: Carnegie Institution of Washington with The Flintridge Foundation. Online version: https://publicationsonline.carnegiescience.edu/publications_online/galaxy_atlas_1/. This massive resource contains many classic photographic plates illustrative of the Hubble classification system for galaxies.

Sartre, Jean-Paul. 1905-1980. 1943. L'Etre et le Neant: Essai d'Ontologie Phenomenologique. Gallimard. Being and Nothingness: An Essay on Phenomenological Ontology. Gallimard. (Trans. H. E. Barnes). New York, NY: Washington Square Press. https://www.librairie-gallimard.com/livre/9782070293889-l-etre-et-le-neant-essai-d-ontologie-phenomenologique-jean-paul-sartre/. Sartre's phenomenological approach to human freedom is actually harmoniously complementary to Spinoza's ontological determinism (see reference and discussion in Greer, 2014. From theodicy to anthropodicy: A reflection on ... 'divine action and the argument from neglect.' https://enlightenmentlegacy.net/2014-Greer_Anthropodicy.pdf).

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Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS): Huge spectroscopy database: https://www.sdss.org/; https://www.sdss3.org/. Contains the spectra of a multitude of celestial objects, and also a number of sub-databases: Imaging legacy survey (SDSS-I/II); Supernova Survey (SDSS-II); SEGUE (SDSS-II) and SEGUE-2 (SDSS-III); MARVELS (SDSS-III); BOSS (SDSS-III) and eBOSS (SDSS-IV); APOGEE (SDSS-III) and APOGEE-2 (SDSS-IV); MaNGA (SDSS-IV); MaStar (SDSS-IV); link.

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Smoot, G. & Davidson, K. 1993. Wrinkles in Time. New York, NY: Avon Books. Discusses the 1992 COBE results of measurements and mapping of minute anisotropies in the temperature of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). 

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The James Webb Space Telescope. https://webbtelescope.org/, with growing gallery. What is JWST looking at now: https://www.webbtelescope.org/webb-science/the-observatory/what-is-webb-observing-now.html.

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Dedicated to my late father, Lee F., who early bequeathed to me a love of both story and science, especially first, astronomy, the science of the Universe:
Adapted and expanded from a web-based talk (originally created in 1998 & 1999); p
resented in the first edition expanded form on 08 March 2003 to a religious forum
and in various editions to other audiences several times since.

To contact the author, Lee F Greer, Ph.D., email info@enlightenmentlegacy.net.

https://www.enlightenmentlegacy.netLink to the Enlightenment Legacy Net / Enlightenment Legacy Space homepage.