(Image link); for the JWST Observatory Coordinate System and Field of Regard:
JWST data pipeline; link).

Chapter V: First publicly published on 02 July 2023, just 10 days before the 1st anniversary of JWST Day 1: 12 July 2022.

V. The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) discoveries are rocking the foundations of the ΛCDM HBB Cosmology

From Mythos to Cosmos took millennia, the Old Ptolemaic to Copernican took centuries, the battle between the HBBC and CSSC took decades and years, and the JWST is contradicting the HBBC in weeks & months

Introduction. Because of the wealth of data emerging from the JWST, this chapter focuses on the data and results of significance for testing cosmological theories in a time of paradigmatic discussion. The papers and their data are summarized in brief and laid out in chronological sequence, essentially in scrapbook fashion. (See the Livescience popular summary: "James Webb Space Telescope: Origins, design and mission objectives" (link). Also available is the DAWN JWST Archive (DJA), a database of deep sky objects observed by the JWST: https://dawn-cph.github.io/dja/index.html.

As in the early days of the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment, the technological advance of the telescope, Galileo's scope, helped bring the Old Ptolemaic system or world-view into a paradigmatic crisis (Kuhnian sense), so the anomalies which have been for decades accumulating in the New Ptolemaic system of the HBBC are being brought into paradigmatic crisis by the JWST, building upon the results of the HST. Science is often fundamentally conservative when it comes to established paradigms, but the influx of data rapidly increased by JWST and other modern instruments is accelerating that paradigmatic crisis. The comparison is apt, and we explore this developing crisis in this chapter. The popular science journalism is recognizing the paradigmatic situation also, even if in limited terms dealing with the 'Hubble tension' (discussed in detail in chapter VII), &c., using the rather melodramatic title: "After 2 years in space, the James Webb telescope has broken cosmology. Can it be fixed?" (Livescience link).

The telescopes versus established cosmologies of their times: The Old & the New Ptolemaic Systems

The Old Ptolemaic System geocentric cosmology

The New Ptolemaic System cosmology: The ΛCDM HBBC

Paradigm-bursting telescopes.

Provisional Contents

12 July 2022, Tuesday, 10:30 am EDT / 14:30 UTC, JWST Day 1. The fully operational JWST began to publicly "unfold the infrared universe" (https://www.nasa.gov/webbfirstimages). Almost immediately the simmering controversies in cosmology erupted again in quite publicly renewed controversy over whether the Big Bang cosmology can accommodate some of these very deep sky data. The main JWST home website and its frequently updated image gallery went live, and one can follow the JWST on its distant orbital path (Where is Webb?). And the scientific paper preprint services began putting out JWST data. The first images:

Juxtaposed images of an Abell cluster of galaxies, SMACS-0723, ~4 billion light-years (Gly) away, (Hubble Space Telescope or HST on Left, and James Webb Space Telescope  or JWST on Right).

Part of the Carina Nebula, NGC 3324: A star forming region (longest nebular protrusions are about 7 light-years long).

NGC 7317, NGC 7318A / 7318B, NGC 7319, and NGC 7320, or Stephan's Quintet of galaxies (also known as Hickson Compact Group 92; HCG 92). More about this enigmatic group in the pages linked below.

NGC 3132, Southern Ring Nebula ~2,500 light-years distant, a planetary nebula of gas and dust shed away by a dying star (<5 solar masses), which after swelling into a red giant, has blown away the shells of gas and dust, leaving a white dwarf, for the first time revealed as swaddled in dust (taken by two JWST cameras). Note the distant galaxy, edge-on at about 10 o'clock.

Representation of a spectrum (taken by JWST) indicating the presence of an H2O absorption spectrum on a hot gas giant planet (~0.48 Jupiter masses) called WASP 96b (found in 2013 by the Wide Angle Search for Planets) which is only
0.0453 AU (astronomical units, ~93 million miles, Sun-Earth distance) from its star, WASP 92, with an orbital period of only about 3.4 days (link).

Happy Birthday, JWST (12 July 2023). On the first anniversary, the JWST gallery released the following image of the birth of Sun-like stars


An Excursus on Stellar Evolution & Stellar Ages in Cosmology
(This section will ultimately be re-located to chapter III, but is temporarily for reference here).

The Hertzsprung-Russell classification of stars by spectral type and luminosity (as absolute magnitudes were determined using established distances through Sun-Earth parallax calculations).

Start brightness vs temperature (top axis), stellar surface temperature in Kelvins (bottom axis), brightness in absolute magnitude (left vertical axis), and luminosity in solar units (right vertical axis); from https://www.thinglink.com/scene/713103122389532674 (also has linked nearby constellation examples of various ones of these stellar types).

An excellent primer on stellar evolution and star life-cycle processes including a brief introduction to chemical nucleosynthesis in stars may be found at the British Faulkes Telescope Educational Guide (https://www.le.ac.uk/ph/faulkes/web/stars/r_st_evolution.html). For more on stellar spectra and spectroscopy, see Sky & Telescope's "Essential Guide to Astronomy" on the subject of spectral classification of stars (https://skyandtelescope.org/astronomy-resources/the-spectral-types-of-stars/). The use of spectral color on the Hertzsprung-Russell (H-R) diagram allows us to do isochrone dating of stars and star populations. ESA's Gaia mission has also provided a rich data base and far more information on spectral classes and their internal stellar physics. Stellar metallicities (elemental fusion above He) provide another proxy for age evolution of star populations. (See this blogspot for a simple introduction).

Use of stellar isochrone (&c.) dating in the Hertsprung-Russell (HRD) and Color-Magnitude (CMD) Diagrams:

HR diagram with ages
(link; link).

22,000 stars from the Hipparcos Catalogue along with 1000 nearby stars from the Gliese Catalogue (link).

Figures 1.6 and 1.7 from Elizabete da Cunha, 2008, 2010. Modélisation des Distributions Spectrales d'énergie des Galaxies de l'Ultraviolet à l'Infrarouge. Ph.D. Dissertation. Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, CNRS (UMR 7095), Universite Pierre & Marie Curie; 185 pp. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/41053015.

Casanellas, J. & Lopes, I. 2011. Signatures of dark matter burning in nuclear star clusters. ApJL 733 (2), L51.https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/2041-8205/733/2/L51. Note the isochrones, even though put in the context of supposed unknown 'dark matter' (DM).

Ekstrom et al. 2012. Grids of stellar models with rotation. I. Models from 0.8 to 120 M at solar metallicity (Z = 0.014). A&A 537, A146. https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201117751.

Bressan et al. 2012. PARSEC: stellar tracks and isochrones with the PAdova and TRieste Stellar Evolution Code. MNRAS 427 (1), 127. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2966.2012.21948.x. Cf. Bressan et al. 2013. Red Giant evolution and specific problems. 40th Liege International Astrophysical Colloquium. Ageing Low Mass Stars: From Red Giants to White Dwarfs. EPJ Web of Conferences 43, 03001. https://doi.org/10.1051/epjconf/20134303001, and Meyner & Maeder, 2000. Stellar evolution with rotation V: Changes in all the outputs of massive star models. https://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0006404v1.

June Murcell (2014) on stellar counts between color magnitude diagram (CMD) and star formation history (SFH) slideshare.

Greggio, L., Falomo, R., & Uslenghi, M. 2015. Studying stellar halos with future facilities.
In A. Bragaglia, M. Arnaboldi, M. Rejkuba & D. Romano, eds. Proceedings IAU Symposium 11, S317.

Choi et al. 2016. MESA isochrones and stellar tracks (MIST). I. Solar-scaled models. ApJ 823 (2), 102. https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.3847/0004-637X/823/2/102.
Choi et al. 2016. MESA isochrones and stellar tracks (MIST). I. Solar-scaled models. ApJ 823 (2), 102. https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.3847/0004-637X/823/2/102.

Marigo et al. 2017. A new generation of PARSEC-COLIBRI stellar isochrones including the TP-AGB phase. ApJ 835 (1), 77. https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.3847/1538-4357/835/1/77.

Chiba, R. & Schonrich, R. 2021. Tree-ring structure of Galactic bar resonance.
MNRAS 505 (2), 2412. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stab1094.

Imig et al. 2022. SDSS-IV MaStar: Data-driven parameter derivation for the MaStar Stellar Library.
AJ 163 (2), 56. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-3881/ac3ca7.

Working from their own 2015 model, Angus et al. 2019. Toward precise stellar ages: Combining isochrone fitting with empirical gyrochronology. AJ 158 (5), 173. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-3881/ab3c53, provided a hierarchical Baysian statistical package, Stardate (https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2712419), for combining isochrones of the Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram (HRD) and the Color-Magnitude Diagram (CMD) with rotational behavior of stars, gyrochronology to model and predict the difficult ages of subgiant and low mass main sequence stars (FGKM), calibrated by known stars. 

It is important to note that since M dwarf stars (as pointed out) are difficult to precisely date for many reasons doubtless, so their dates can definitely be greater than sometimes found in HBBC-constrained estimates. This suggests possible tests for other cosmological models not limited by the HBBC time-frame.

For example, in the QSSC and kindred old / eternal Universe cosmologies, the highly stable, long-lived ~0.7 M M stars could have ages on the order of ~15 - ~25 Gya, far beyond the HBBC time constraints. The existence of such stars is again a potentially-testable cosmological prediction for data in stellar evolution, especially if modelers don't rule them out a priori for paradigmatic reasons.

The Milky Way satellite galaxy, the stars of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) in the HST data σ(V-I) < 0.02 in the Color-Magnitude Diagram (CMD), cited in J. V. Narlikar's talk, "The case for an alternative cosmology" (link), given in a colloquium at the Copernicus Center for Indisciplinary Studies, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland (link).

Databases & Resources: "PARSEC stellar evolution code" (https://people.sissa.it/~sbressan/parsec.html); CMD 3.7: web interface for stellar isochrones and their derivatives (http://stev.oapd.inaf.it/cgi-bin/cmd); cf. older Padova database of stellar evolutionary tracks and isochrones (https://pleiadi.oapd.inaf.it/); also cf. Gerardi & Marigo presentation on updating the Padova database of stellar tracks and isochrones (https://www.astro.rug.nl/~sctrager/FTSPM/Girardi.pdf).

In light of the data discussed throughout this history of cosmology, the evolution of stellar ages of open, globular clusters, and of the galaxies and other extra-galactic objects with stars are key to examining the assumptions and testing any hypotheses which underlie any cosmology postulating a cosmos of finite duration. Stellar ages greater than (>) or much greater (>>) ~14 Gya should not be ruled out a priori.

As we prepare to critically examine the JWST data, as well as reminding ourselves about stellar ages, it is important to review the advances made in galaxy morphology classification beyond the simple Hubble Tuning-Fork (chapter III and referenced elsewhere). This can be done in a pre-JWST setting by reference to advances in galactic morphology classification from other orbiting observatories, such as the Hubble Space Telescope (HST; link) and the Spitzer (infrared) Space Telescope (link; cf. searchable repository: https://sha.ipac.caltech.edu/applications/Spitzer/SHA/), particularly in the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS) Hubble Tuning-Fork classification (database: https://irsa.ipac.caltech.edu/data/SPITZER/SINGS/; cf. https://www.esa.int/Science_Exploration/Space_Science/Fine-tuning_galaxies_with_Herschel_and_Spitzer); primary papers search on arXiv (results) and on the Harvard astrophysical data system (results): Warning in this false-color image set, Old stars are made to appear as blue when they should be RED (Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram); young stars made to appear as red when they should be BLUE (Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram); lumpy knots of green and red are supposed to be new stars in their nebulae of gas and dust. This switch may have been inadvertent, but it unfortunately has the effect of misleading people about the relative stellar ages represented by each morphotype.

(Sadly, the original URL seems to be gone: https://sings.stsci.edu/; so here is an image link).

Cosmology model test. Galaxy morphology (as well as stellar population ages) are vital in light of consideration of observational tests for cosmological models which empirically compare the prevalent galaxy morphologies between the local Universe populations of galaxies and the high redshift or high-z Universe populations of galaxies. Readers, whether amateur astronomers, professional scientists, or anyone interested, should examine the images and make comparisons for themselves.

Before 12 July 2022. In 2021, Ricardo Scarpa and Eric Lerner published a paper asking, Will LCDM cosmology survive the James Webb Space Telescope? https://www.researchgate.net/publication/361208585. Over the years during the development and building of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), the Science Working Group (SWG) and other scientists Space wrote a variety of 'white papers' on "Potential Science with JWST" with advice for the telescope builders on the capabilities to be included, collected by the Telescope Science Institute (STScI). The builders of JWST fully expected that JWST would confirm and consolidate the
ΛCDM version of the hot Big Bang model, being tasked among other objectives certain goals of cosmological model scope including with
Scarpa & Lerner (2021) predicted that JWST will not thus confirm the ΛCDM. The JWST data they hold will spark a revolution in cosmology, astronomy, and fundamental physics. JWST is expected to look farther out and farther back in time into the Universe than any human instrument before.

Scarpa and Lerner (2021) closed in the first version of their paper by correctly pointing out a possible parallel in that the old Ptolemaic System did not survive Galileo Galilei's telescope, and asking if the ΛCDM version of the HBB Cosmology, what we here have called the New Ptolemaic System, in its current form, can survive another telescope, the JWST?

Scarpa & Lerner (2021) made very specific and falsifiable predictions based on cosmological models. Let us summarize here in these select areas. Using a default Euclidean cosmos model as a null test for the expected values under the ΛCDM paradigm. 
Comparing the predictions of the ΛCDM (with specific free parameter settings) with the Euclidean predictions for type Ia supernovae. These predictions are indistinguishable out to z > 1. As JWST pushes those z-values to higher levels, then Scarpa & Lerner (2021) expect that a divergence between the ΛCDM and Euclidean Universe predictions will become more sharply differentiated for hypothesis-testing.

Scarpa & Lerner (2021) predict, that while there is rough congruence for distance modulus (μ = m - M, where m is the apparent magnitude, and M is the absolute magnitude = apparent magnitude at 10 parsecs) at different redshifts or z-values between the WMAP values and the Euclidean, up to about z ~ 5, at higher redshifts, there will be a divergence between the ΛCDM-interpreted WMAP results and the Euclidean predictions. They forecast that the Euclidean predictions will be borne out by the JWST data instead of the ΛCDM-dependent predictions.

Scarpa & Lerner (2022) point out that for galaxies with similar UV luminosities, size is parametrized to evolve as (1 + z)α, with a range of -0.75 < α < -1.4. However, in a Euclidean space up to a redshift of z = 15, this parameter α = -1.5, well beyond and removed from the ΛCDM paradigm of the HBBC expectations. 

Inverted color: red = cyan
According to the ΛCDM Big Bang, galaxies grow over the course of the BB cosmos by accretion and merging of smaller galaxies of the order of 𝑀 ≃ 104𝑀, so there is supposed to be a size evolution, with small, irregular galaxies common in the cosmic past. However, in a Euclidean cosmos, there is not a size evolution. Shibuya et al. (2019 & the references they cite). Morphologies of ∼190,000 galaxies at z = 0-10 revealed with HST legacy data. III. Continuum profile and size evolution of Lyα Emitters. ApJ 871 (2), 164. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aaf64b, found using the model-independent Sersic index of brightness intensity distribution. Lyman-α emitting galaxies (LAEs), star-forming galaxies (SFGs), and Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs) with their data curves are shown here compared with Euclidean predictions (heavy white line) where there is no size evolution and the trend follows (1 + z)-1.5, such as would be expected in an infinite, eternal Euclidean Universe, rather than a dimming ~ (1 + z)-3 with size evolution which is not observed, requiring a free parameter adjusted reformulation to keep it in harmony with the ΛCDM Big Bang model, re (1 + z)-1.37 +/- 0.65 (which by the way, includes the Euclidean prediction of (1 + z)-1.5 to approximate the data. See the parameter α discussion with Fig. 3. It should be noted that the size-luminosity relation of the LAEs decreases monotonically toward higher z-values, but Shibuya et al. (2019) claim otherwise for the SFGs and LBGs which evolve according to re (1 + z)-1.37 +/- 0.65 , which includes the (1 + z)-1.5 prediction for a Euclidean model, claiming that this may mean that LAEs "are probably biased to faint sources at low redshift" showing that they have not really grappled with the implications of their data

They point out that in the local Universe, large spiral galaxies have characteristic velocity rotation profiles leveling off at around 280 km-1, as one moves outward from the core by several kpc. It is this which is supposed to be an indication of 'dark matter' under standard gravitation or requiring MOND to explain. Under the HBBC ΛCDM paradigm, galaxies are supposed to be much smaller in the past, so this is a test for whether ΛCDM or Euclidean predictions are met. Already in Rizzo et al. (2020) cited, the spiral galaxy SPT0418-47 at z = 4.2, with the angular radius chosen by Rizzo et al. (2020), there is a linear radius of ~19 kpc and a 𝑉2/𝑟 = 1.4 x 10-8 cm s-2, which agrees with the local Universe values, i.e., no evolution there. In other words, it seems that this spiral galaxy is like our spiral Milky Way, except located at z = 4.2! What would be expected in steady state or Euclidean model. The JWST will tell us whether this trend continues to higher redshift values.

Without all of the ΛCDM free parameter fitting and adjusting, the Euclidean model predicts the scatter in QSO redshifts just as well as or just as poorly (they add) as the ΛCDM must have just to remain viable at all, with all of the parameter-fitting.

See the discussion of the data of Resaliti & Luzzo (2019) in chapter VII, "Unexpected Redshifts." 

Scarpa & Lerner (2021).

The chemical evolution found in even very distant QSOs shows that there is plenty of metallicity as indicated by distant quasar ULAS J1120+0641, with a redshift of z = 7.09, i.e., a calculated look-back time of 12.964 Gya (supposedly
0.758 Gyr post-BB). This high metallicity is surprising and not expected for a quasar, let alone a quasar of that redshift, under the HBBC ΛCDM paradigm. Citing the Mortlock, D., Warren, S., Venemans, B. et al. 2011. A luminous quasar at a redshift of z = 7.085. Nature 474, 616. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature10159, Scarpa & Lerner (2022) point out that quasars are self-similar at all redshifts, indicating that they should have minimal physical or chemical evolution, however, as ULAS J1120+0641 illustrates, there is plenty of chemical evolution and metallicity in this high redshift quasar.

(Scarpa & Lerner, 2021).

Scarpa &. Lerner (2020) conclude in their own words, "We have presented a short list of cases - other[s] could have been included, though we believe we made our point clear - in which data probing the distant Universe have been interpreted differently from what is usually done. This alternative interpretation rests on the assumption there is no expansion of space and the linear Hubble law is valid to arbitrarily large redshifts. In this framework, distant galaxies are found to be similar to local galaxies, indicating nothing special is happening at the largest probed z. Quasars do suggest the same. All this show there are little indications that observations are actually approaching the beginning of the Universe....
Our main conclusion is that the JWST will fail to probe the Dark Age, because there never was one." They then hope for these advances in data to inspire a new vision of the Universe and a revolution in physics.

For further pre-JWST details of the observational data and pre-JWST predictions of departures from the ΛCDM paradigm, please see Lerner et al. (2014) and Lerner (2018) discussed below, under An excursus on the Tolman (1930, 1934) test applied to GALEX & HUDF. Other papers with their data may be added here as they are relevant to cosmological tests inherent in the data emerging from the unfolding saga of JWST below.

Unfolding the JWST Results

Our approach of discussing these results will be to cite below when the paper was first released for the chronology (for example the release date on arXiv), and then cite and utilize the finished paper published, when available, to discuss the data of significance to cosmological theories. [All cosmological calculations included in this chapter, unless otherwise stated, are done with the advanced calculator of E. L. Wright, 2006. A cosmology calculator for the World Wide Web. PASP 118 (850), 1711. https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1086/510102, found at https://www.astro.ucla.edu/~wright/ACC.html; parameters adjusted from the papers when available. The calculator's default value is set at H0 = 69.9 km s-1 Mpc-1].

A short excursus on gravitational lensing. The first deep sky images from JWST sought to take advantage of gravitational lensing via a distant Abell cluster of galaxies to 'magnify' more distant galactic objects beyond. Because of general relativity, which can model gravity using Riemann spacetime general covariant curvature, first described by David Hilbert and appropriated by Albert Einstein (see chapter I for forthcoming details), 'gravitational lensing' of more distant objects by intervening masses can be illustrated thus:

NASA / ESA illustration of gravitional lensing (2011): https://sci.esa.int/web/hubble/-/48616-gravitational-lensing-in-action.

14 July 2022 (Thursday) released. On this date a large research group released their findings (https://arxiv.org/abs/2207.07101), Mahler et al. 2023. Precision modeling of JWSTʼs first cluster lens SMACS J0723.3-7327. ApJ 945, 49. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/acaea9. The Abell cluster has an estimated mean redshift of z = 0.3877, so that its light traveled ~4.2 Gya. They centered their image (Fig. 1) on the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) and overlaid the Chandra X-ray surface brightness isophotes over that (white contours). Table 1 shows the spectrographic redshifts of 26 members of the Abell cluster. Figure 5 shows various contours, including the critical curve (in cyan) for a lensed source with a z = 9, meaning a light traveling time of 13.170 Gya. Table 2 has some spectroscopically-determined redshifts.

In Mahler et al.'s (2023) Table 2, we find some very high redshifts (with their travel distance in light-years calculated via Wright's advanced cosmology calculator: Wright, E. L. 2006. A cosmology calculator for the World Wide Web. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pacific 118 (850), 1711. https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1086/510102; located at https://www.astro.ucla.edu/~wright/ACC.html), including the highest redshift value thus far in that paper, z = 14.39 (look-back time ~13.434 Gya), which was higher than the highest z-value (~13.1 Gya) of any object observed in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF). These z-values are already surpassing many of the redshift values found in the HUDF (Radefski et al. 2015).

A quick tabulation:
Redshift (z)
Look-back times....
z = 1.09 8.166 Gya
z = 1.38 9.092 Gya
z = 1.425 9.214 Gya
z = 1.73 9.918 Gya
z = 1.81 10.074 Gya
z = 1.9914 10.391 Gya
z = 2.04 10.468 Gya
z = 2.12 10.589 Gya
z = 2.31 10.849 Gya
z = 2.60 11.183 Gya
z = 2.88 11.449 Gya
z = 3.01 11.558 Gya
z = 3.93 12.130 Gya
z = 5.17 12.584 Gya
z = 14.39 13.434 Gya

It should not escape our notice, as with the various Hubble Deep Fields, that many of the galaxies with these high redshifts were already galaxies with aging star populations, indicating that they were old when the light left them billions of years ago. 

Another paper released that day (https://arxiv.org/abs/2207.07102) was Pascale et al. 2022. Unscrambling the lensed galaxies in JWST images behind SMACS 0723. ApJ 938, L6. https://doi.org/10.3847/2041-8213/ac9316, identified the distant galaxies they considered to be lensed by this Abell cluster (Figure 1) and the rather considerable redshifts with differences in some cases between earlier determined redshifts, the JWST NIRCam (near IR camera), and the lens model determinations.  

19 July 2022 (Tuesday) released. Three other notable papers dropped on this late July Tuesday.

After preprint, https://arxiv.org/abs/2207.09434, Naidu et al. 2022, published, Two remarkably luminous galaxy candidates at z ≈ 10-12 revealed by JWST. ApJ 940, L14. https://doi.org/10.3847/2041-8213/ac9b22. They weren't the only high redshift galaxies documented by these astronomers, but both were unusually bright, and one displayed unexpected morphology. These galaxies, designated as follows, have the following redshift extrapolations.

Note the faint magnitudes captured at the depth with JWST across the wavelength bands in this Table 1.

The top part of Figure 1 remained uninverted and the bottom part was inverted, both for clarity.
  • In Figure 1 (across above right), note that (as discussed with the data of Yan et al. 2002, and other papers cited in this chapter), the high redshift galaxy, GLASS-z12 at z = 12.2, is closely associated with a 'quiescent' lower redshift galaxy at z = 3.5. These two galaxies, one high-z and one lower-z occur in the same angular location in the sky, and have had their respective redshifts statistically confirmed.
  • In Figure 2 (across), also note that like GLASS-z12, high redshift galaxy, GLASS-z10 at z ~ 10.39 (avg of z-values according to the EAZY and Prospector analyses), is likewise closely associated with a 'quiescent' lower redshift galaxy at z = 2.5; also with respective redshifts statistically confirmed.
There are comparable, proportional spreads in z-units, respectively
between the high z galaxies and the low z galaxies.
High z 12.2 ~10.39
Low z 3.5 2.5
(zL / zH)
(3.5 / 12.2)  ~0.287 (2.5 / ~10.39) ~0.241
A footnote question: Is this proportionality, (or similar ones in other
'deep field' high z / low z distributions), possibly significant?

The top part of Figure 2 remained uninverted and the bottom part was inverted, both for clarity.

In Figure 4, note the disk-like morphology of one of these high-z galaxies!

On the bottom panel, the angularly-larger galaxy below, assaying its z-value would be of interest.

Figure 6{a} Top

Figure 6{a}

Figure 6{b} Bottom

Figure 6{b}

Both of these galaxies displayed unusual brightness, with look-back times >13.2 Gya (supposedly <0.5 Gyr post-BB), and yet they are massive, and one of them at z > 10 has the morphology of a disk, possibly spiral, galaxy (see Fig. 4 above). And they both, in angular sky location, are associated with lower redshift galaxies, both with comparable, proportional spreads in z-units.

Another paper more generally about galaxies with high redshifts also dropped on 19 July 2022 (https://arxiv.org/abs/2207.09436), Castellano et al. 2022. Early results from GLASS-JWST. III. galaxy candidates at z∼9-15. ApJ 938, L15. https://doi.org/10.3847/2041-8213/ac94d0. Table 1 shows candidate, color-selected galaxies with redshift values varying from z ~ 9.04 or
13.174 Gya (supposedly ~ 0.547 Gyr post-BB) to z ~ 12.30 or ~12.363 Gya (supposedly ~0.359 Gyr post-BB).

Castellano et al. (2022) Figure 1 shows the detection of a selection of high redshift galaxies in different color channels, including large bright galaxies (LBGs) in the z ~ 9-11 range, with look-back times ranging from 13.170 Gya (supposedly 0.552 Gyr post-BB) to 13.303 Gya (supposedly 0.419 Gyr post-BB) and also in the z ~ 9-15 range, again with look-back times from 13.170 Gya (supposedly 0.552 Gyr post-BB) to 13.450 Gya (supposedly 0.272 Gyr post-BB). m

Below, two very bright and high quality redshift galaxies (LGBs), GHZ1 and GHZ2.

Below, fainter high redshift galaxy candidates, 3 of them equivocal with a non-negligible probability of being lower redshift (GHZ3, GHZ5, GHZ6), while GHZ4 has a high probability of being a high redshift galaxy, but in the fainter magnitude range, 

Castellano et al. (2022) pointed out that JWST's power to find high-z galaxies is unquestioned within certain uncertainties. This paper in the single GLASS field found a number of z ~ 9-15 galaxies from the 7-color band, mag ~29 (5σ) NIRCam imaging, making the NIRCam images the first multi-color band selection of Lyman-break galaxies in this redshift range 'using two independent color-color diagrams.' The authors point out that they have two unambiguous high redshift bright galaxy candidates (Fig. 3), which are GHZ1 at z = 10.6 equivalent in look-back time to
13.281 Gya (supposedly 0.441 Gyr post-BB) and GHZ2 at z ~/= 12.2 Early Results from GLASS-JWST. III. Galaxy Candidates at z ∼9�15 equivalent in look-back time to 13.359 Gya (supposedly 0.363 Gyr post-BB). They urge that the other more ambiguous high redshift galaxies should be tested further in JWST Cycle-2.   

And now we can start getting a census of how many galaxies there are at such high redshifts. Again in a putative eternal Universe, the only limit is our instrumentation, in this case, our best thus far, the JWST.

The final and most significant paper to drop that Tuesday (https://arxiv.org/abs/2207.09428) was Ferriera et al. 2022. Panic! at the disks: First rest-frame optical observations of galaxy structure at z > 3 with JWST in the SMACS 0723 field. ApJ 938, L2. https://doi.org/10.3847/2041-8213/ac947c. Although some cultural icons, 'guardians of the galaxy's orthodoxy tried to make a big serious face fuss that critics had not explicitly stated that "Panic! at the disks" was a cultural reference to the popular music group, Panic! At the Disco, they in fact showed their own lack of humor at the implications of the findings in this early JWST paper. 


These galaxies (in Fig. 3) appear 2-3 times smaller than expected from HST observations, again indicating that there is not the expansion effect magnification predicted by the Big Bang.

Ferreira et al. (2022) unraveled some of, or shall we say, a few of the implications of their early findings, involving examining the morphology of galaxies in the 1.5 < z < 3 range or
9.405 Gya (supposedly 4.317 Gyr post-BB) < z < 11.550 Gya (supposedly 2.172 Gyr post-BB), where HST neither had the depth nor resolution to correctly decipher galaxy morphology. They classified 280 galaxies as spheroid, disk, and peculiar / irregular in the 1.5 < z < 8 range or up to 13.076 Gya (supposedly 0.646 Gyr post-BB), at rest-frame optical wavelengths for JWST. Then they ran quantitative parametric and nonparametric morphology tests on these selected galaxies. Their findings:
What became very apparent with the unexpected mass presence of disk galaxies is that galaxy evolution is expected to take a long time, just like the Milky Way galaxy has been the essential barred spiral that it is for ~10 Gy. The Hubble-de Vaucouleurs morphological classification of galaxy evolution illustrates, when they were expected to start very small and grow through mergers and ragged, but when large, smooth spirals and elliptical galaxies are present from when they shouldn't be present, they suggest that the Universe was old then as now with fully mature and very distant from us galaxies:

(Wiki Commons link).

Note in prediction
. Here's a prediction, the supposed 'evolutionary epochs' in the deep redshift ranges in space telescope 'deep fields' with supposed differing stages of galaxy formation, are simply artifacts of the limitations of our observatories, looking outward, as they may well be, upon an eternal Universe. Next generation space telescopes will continue to find enriched cohorts of unexpected mature galaxy morphologies of all stellar ages as far as the limits of optical and near IR telescopy can take us.

Of course, when dissident Eric Lerner began to comment on these findings in August 2022 and before, all hell broke loose from the august defenders of orthodoxy. (For discussion from both and from many sides, see videos). We of course stick with the published papers, which are of primary importance.

19 July 2022 (Wednesday) released; revised May 2023: Another paper submitted on the 19th which got in under the 20th is Adams et al. 2022a. The total rest-frame UV luminosity function from 3 < 𝑧 < 5: A simultaneous study of AGN and galaxies from -28 < 𝑀UV < -16. https://arxiv.org/abs/2207.09342v1. This paper is of especial relevance because of UV luminosity data and predictions made using data sets then available by Lerner, E. J., Falomo, R., & Scarpa, R. 2014. UV surface brightness of galaxies from the local universe to z ~ 5. International Journal of Modern Physics D 23 (6). https://doi.org/10.1142/S0218271814500588, first published on https://arxiv.org/abs/1405.0275.

22 July 2022 (Friday); v2 15 May 2023; published 2023. Adams et al. (2022b; 2023) released (
https://arxiv.org/abs/2207.11217), Discovery and properties of ultra-high redshift galaxies (9 < z < 12) in the JWST ERO SMACS 0723 Field. MNRAS 518 (3), 4755. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stac3347. In the Discovery and properties of ultra-high redshift galaxies 9 &lt; &lt; 12 in the JWST ERO SMACS 0723 Field SMACS 0723 field, modelling photometric redshifts, they were searching for ultra high redshift galaxies (z > 9) which they hypothesized would be within the HBBC 'Epoch of Reionization' and they found 4 previously unidentified galaxies with z > 9, i.e., look-back times of >13.170 Gya (supposedly <0.552 Gyr post-BB) including one galaxy with z = 11.5, i.e., a look-back time of 13.328 Gya (supposedly 0.394 Gyr post-BB), and among them, two possibly paired galaxies. However, the main purpose of the paper seems to have been to reign in or domesticate the redshift measurements of two earlier (than final version) papers discussed below, Yan et al. (2022) and Atek et al. (2022), which we will discuss in detail. With model-adjustments, here is Adams et al. (2022b)'s Table 4, which introduces the earlier papers' z-measurements and their own modifications / domestications.

Adams et al. (2022b).
A data display difference between Adams et al. (2022b) and the earlier
Yan et al. (2022) and Antek et al. (2022) is that the both of these cited papers shared their galactic spectra and the SED (spectral energy distributions including the Lyman and Balmer signatures), whereas Adams et al. (2022b) did not. Furthermore, while Adams et al. (2022b) was publicly downloadable through the MNRAS site (link), Antek et al. (2022) was not. Yan et al. (2022) was released on Iopscience.

23 July 2022 (Saturday)
released; v2 24 November 2022. Yan et al. (2022) released a preprint v1 and v2 (https://arxiv.org/abs/2207.11558), First batch of z ≈ 11-20 candidate objects revealed by the James Webb Space Telescope Early Release Observations [ERO] on SMACS 0723-73. ApJL 942 (1), L9. https://doi.org/10.3847/2041-8213/aca80c. This beautiful paper shares its data, 6-band JWST observed wavelengths coded, the redshifts, the SEDs (spectral energy distributions), and the images, for a feast of data. Candidly, they write, "The large number of such candidate objects at such high redshifts is not expected from the previously favored predictions and demands further investigations. JWST spectroscopy on such objects will be critical," (Emphasis added). By the Wright (2006) online calculator, we have many very high redshift galaxies, ranging
On to the data in detail: For young, maximum old, and maximum old dusty galaxies, the authors show the expected spectra across the wavelength bands available to the JWST's instruments:

The additional figures of Yan et al. (2022), Appendix I.

Fig B1-a. 6-bands of NIRCam

Figure B1-b 6-band

Fig. B1-c 6-band

Fig. B1-d (cont.) 6-band

Fig. B1-e. 6-band

Fig. B1-f. 6-band

Fig. B2-a. 6-band.

Fig. B2-b 6-band

Fig. B2-c 6-band

Fig. B2-d F277 band

End of Yan et al. (2022) Appendix Figure B.

All the cutout images of distant galaxies in each of 6 wavelength bands assayed by JWST show differing levels of visible resolution, in ways dependent on the wavelength. Furthermore, in many of the bands the images are near, at, or just beyond the level of JWST resolution. The same may be said in general about the galaxy images in aggregate across the bands. The "chain of five" galaxies are in regular Figure 3, and are not included in this collection of Appendix collection of cutout images.

The limits of resolution at these wavelength can be visualized in the Figure B collages, as well as in the magnitudes of these remote galaxies in the wavelength bands summarized in Yan et al. (2022) Appendix Table 1:

Yan et al. (2022) Table 1.

These faint magnitudes lay out a range of the near limits of the JWST resolution across these wavelength bands available. 

Fig. C1-a. Band F150 SED (spectral energy distribution)-fitting using Le Phare [see Ilbert, O., Arnouts, S., McCracken, H. J., et al. 2006. Accurate photometric redshifts for the CFHT legacy surveycalibrated using the VIMOS VLT deep survey. A&A 457 (3), 841. https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361:20065138].
The ubiquitous PDF stands for "probability distribution function."

Fig. C1-b. Band F150. Again, coincident low and high redshift NIR sources. Lots of them called 'contamination' by BBers but astronomer should let the data speak on their own terms:

Fig. C1-c.

Fig. C1-d. Band F150. More 'coincident contamination' of close-angular proximity low and high redshift galaxies in the remote JWST field views of the Universe.

Fig. C1-e. Band F150.

Fig. C1-f. Band F150.

Fig. C2-a. Band F200.

Fig. C2-b. Band F200.

Fig. D1-a. Band F150 SED (spectral energy distribution)-fitting using the EAZY-py package with templates including emission lines (https://github.com/gbrammer/eazy-py) modified to assay upper flux limits. We leave the images very large in order to show the redshift values near the likely current limits of JWST resolution. The little cyan circle-dots are the synthesized flux densities based on best-fit models.

Fig. D1-b. Band F150.

Fig. D1-c. Band F150 (legend).

Fig. D1-d. Band F150.

Fig. D1-e. Band F150.

Fig. D1-F150 cont.

Fig. D2-a. Band F200.

Fig. D1-b. Band F200 (legend).

Yan et al. (2022).

A summary of the spectral data included in Appendix Figures C and D yield some very interesting patterns.
Appendix Figure C
Le Phare SED analyses
74 total
Double z spectra
59 / 74 ~ 80%
Very Close high zph values (~1-2 z units)
16 / 59 ~ 22%
Low z & high z 'coincident' (multiple z units)
(59 - 16): 43 / 74 ~ 58%
Single z spectra secondary PDF peaks
(74 - 59): 10 / 15 ~ 67%
Tertiary peaks
46 / 59 ~ 78%
Appendix Figure D
EAZY-py SED analyses
74 total
Secondary p(z) =/> 0.80 peaks, including
broad peaks topping threshold
25 / 74 ~ 34%
Secondary & Tertiary peaks (any number)
61 / 74 ~ 82%
Yan et al. (2022) SED spectra summary.

The low photometric z measurements are considered "contamination" but they are also data from those exact angular locations. What if they not merely coincident? it is interesting to note how many assayed galaxies occur with low and high redshift SEDs, pairs of high redshift, and secondary / tertiary peaks. What if all of these are exactly what would be expected of young galaxies in the Ambartsumian-Arp-Vorontsov-Velyaminov cosmogony model? Research recommendation: Vast and complete photometric redshifts should be collected from all of the JWST deep fields and more deep fields should be assayed to test (including away from intervening Abell clusters, such as SMACS 0723) whether such angular 'pairings' are coincidental or occur far beyond the predicted threshold for coincidence. Such 'associations' are also noticeable in the SEDs of other papers cited above. We will of necessity discuss this more. This issue is an important proposed test of cosmological models, outside the New Ptolemaic paradigm of the HBBC.

25 July 2022 (Monday)
released, last revised 31 October 2022; published 23 December 2022 / February, 2023. On arXiv was the first release of Atek et al. 2022. Revealing galaxy candidates out to z ~ 16 with JWST observations of the lensing cluster SMACS0723. https://arxiv.org/abs/2207.12338. This paper was then published: Atek et al. 2023. Revealing galaxy candidates out to z ~ 16 with JWST observations of the lensing cluster SMACS 0723. MNRAS 519 (1), 1201. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stac3144. This paper is also rich with data and implications on high redshift galactic objects.

We will next consider the data in Atek et al. (2022). They produced this wonderful spectral image of the 6 wavelength bands accessible to the JWST:

Atek et al. (2022).

Atek and colleagues were explicit about the ΛCDM cosmology parameters which they were working with H0 = 70 km s-1 Mpc-1, Ω
Λ = 0.7, and Ωm = 0.3.

Atek et al. (2022).

Under these parameters, these redshift ranges may be inferred (Wright, 2006):
  • z ~ 9: Look-back of 12.928 Gya (supposedly 0.536 Gyr post-BB)
  • z ~ 11: Look-back of 13.056 Gya (supposedly 0.407 Gyr post-BB)
  • z ~ 15: Look-back of 13.199 Gya (supposedly 0.264 Gyr post-BB)
  • z ~ 16: Look-back of 13.222 Gya (supposedly 0.241 Gyr post-BB)
  • z ~ 21: Look-back of 13.300 Gya (supposedly 0.164 Gyr post-BB)


Atek et al. (2002) Appendix Figures A1, A2.

Atek et al. (2002) Appendix Figures B1-2, C1-4.

Atek et al. (2002).

An Excursus on the Tolman (1930, 1934) test applied to GALEX & HUDF. Lerner et al. (2014) cited an old test for an 'expanding universe' hypothesis first published by Tolman, R. C. 1930. On the estimation of distances in a curved universe with a non-static line element. PNAS 16, 511. https://www.pnas.org/doi/epdf/10.1073/pnas.16.7.511, (developed in Tolman, 1934. Relativity, Thermodynamics, and Cosmology. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press) which showed that the bolometric surface brightness (i.e., erg sec-1 cm-2 arcsec-2) as a function of redshift z for identical extragalactic sources is independent of whichever expanding model parameters are used. This means that the Tolman test can distinguish between expanding and non-expanding universes thus: In (a) any expanding model the surface brightness luminosity dims proportional to (1+z)-4, whereas in (b) any non-expanding model, the surface brightness luminosity dims as (1+z). When the astronomical AB magnitude system or VEGA magnitutes are used, the comparable source surface brightness in flux per redshift are expected to be constant. For the non-expanding Universe hypothesis, Lerner et al. (2014) did not use the Einstein-de Sitter static Universe as did other workers before, but rather a non-expanding / static Euclidean Universe (SEU) with a z-distance (H0) relation not expansion-generated. For near UV low-z galaxies, the NASA GALEX mission data were used (https://www.nasa.gov/missions/deepspace/galex_mission.html) and for the UV surface brightness high-z galaxies, the NASA Hubble Space Telescope HUDF data (https://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/30946) were used.

Lerner et al. (2014).

Lerner et al. (2014).

In short, Lerner et al. (2014) showed that, based on the GALEX and HST data, the surface luminosity of both low and high redshift galaxies exhibit that our observable Universe exhibits Euclidean and steady state properties.

In August of 2017, Lerner submitted another paper (https://arxiv.org/abs/1803.08382) which was published, again with the data available pre-JWST: Lerner, E. J. 2018. Observations contradict galaxy size and surface brightness predictions that are based on the expanding universe hypothesis. MNRAS 477 (3), 3185. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/sty728. Starting with the Tolman (1930, 1934) test which predicts that in an expanding cosmos, the galactic / object surface brightness (SB) is expected to decline rapidly with redshift z in proportion to (1 + z)-3, where SBs are measured in AB magnitudes, Lerner tested whether the disk and elliptical galactic radii evolve as predicted in expanding cosmos models. Just as Lerner et al. (2014) had shown that the SB / luminosity data was compatible with a static, Euclidean universe (SEU), Lerner (2018) tested to see if an expanding universe model with galaxy size evolution scenarios could produce the same fit of results. He summarized how none of the so far published models for galaxy growth make predictions fitting the data. One of the sources of data is the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) / Skyserver: https://skyserver.sdss.org/dr7/en/. In a non-expanding universe, SB is independent of z, so for any galactic luminosity, disk radii should be constant.

Lerner (2018).

Findings & Conclusions:
  • None of the galaxy growth models such as (a) the 'puffing up' scenario from early quasi-stellar winds, (b) the 'major axis' mergers, and (c) the 'minor axis' mergers, can account for why these data sets do not fit the expanding cosmos models, other than its just by a sheer and massive coincidence.
  • However, the predictions of the SEU are met in that disk & elliptic galaxy radii are z-independent.
  • The SEU does not venture an explanatory mechanism for the linear z-distance relation within a non-expanding Euclidean Universe.
  • These conclusions apply only to the z-radial size relation.
  • These data are empirically consistent to great statistical strengths with an SEU, and robustly inconsistent with any standard expanding cosmos scenarios.

In terms of cosmology, a Euclidean Universe would exhibit an angular-size / redshift relation such that θ = l / d, where θ = angular size in milliarcseconds (mas), l = linear size l, and d = distance from Earth. 

Characteristic angular size in mas and redshift in logarithmic scales (https://universe-review.ca/R15-17-relativity12.htm linked from https://universe-review.ca/index.htm). It is important to note that the data have advanced far beyond this diagram above, since the highest redshift here represented by data is z ~ 4.
Once an expanding Universe is introduced, then the distance from Earth becomes a function of redshift such that, d = (c/H0) {q0z + (q0 - 1)[(1 + 2q0z)1/2 - 1]} / [q02(1 + z)2], where q0 = (4πG ρ / 3) / H02 is the deceleration parameter derived in an equation of standard cosmology (link).
  • In order to achieve this with a negative q0 deceleration parameter such as q0 = -1, one should either turn to a Euclidean non-expanding Universe, or conjure up all of the epicycles and invisible entities of the standard ΛCDM concordance cosmology, which still does not reconcile the data.
  • The only expanding universe cosmological approach that even comes close to the actual data discussed here, minus a multitude of epicycles and adjustable parameters, are the classic steady state cosmologies (CSSC, or a variant of the same) which directly predict a q0 = -1, as discussed in chapter III, "The Hubble Relation and the expanding Universe: 'The War of the World-Views'." It is critical to note that the Hoyle-Narlikar Machian theory (Hoyle & Narlikar, 1962, 1964a-e, 1966, and 1974, &c.) need not have the constraints of either the HBBC, the CSSC, or the QSSC, but simply may be Euclidean in a steady-state or episodic steady-state exhibiting the Ambartsumian-Arp cosmogony with redshift periodicities (see chapter IX), and still be in harmony with these data and observations cited in this Lerner (2018) paper.
  • Another factor in all of these data sets and their implications are the limits of resolution of the telescope / observatory utilized.
  • Additional data sets from the JWST can take us farther than the HDF, the SDSS, and the GALEX data sets.
Prediction: Even the JWST will have similar resolution limitations which will still not bring us to a beginning, especially if we indeed live in an eternal Universe.
Lerner (2018).

25 July 2022 (Thursday)
released. Labbe et al. (2022) released a paper under the title, A very early onset of massive galaxy formation (https://arxiv.org/abs/2207.12446; also at https://www.arxiv-vanity.com/papers/2207.12446/) which was eventually published (2023) as, A population of red candidate massive galaxies ~600 Myr after the Big Bang. Nature 616, 266. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-023-05786-2. It is exceedingly interesting and illuminating both the peer reviewers' comments and the often contrite author responses, gently acknowledging the instrumental limitations and yet arguing for the publication-worthiness of their data results and analyses in Nature (https://static-content.springer.com/esm/). They acknowledge how their results depart from the more conservative UV luminosity studies they cite, including ones above, and exhibit an acknowledged tension with the confines of the ΛCDM. Yet, they argue, their own redshift and mass to light (M-L) estimates are based on also published models and data analysis pipelines using photometric redshift and fiducial (standard reference point) mass extrapolations, so they express confidence in the more full and broad coverage in the color detection bins of the JWST. Fortunately, their data has been published, even despite reviewer reluctance.

Since Rocca-Volmerange et al. (2022) submitted a manuscript in December of 2018, Lyman and Balmer breaks reveal mature z = 8 galaxies (equivalent to 13.067 Gya look-back time, supposedly
0.646 Gyr post-BB) with the code Pegase.3. https://arxiv.org/abs/1812.04283, along with their ages, star formation history (SFH), and their masses in solar units using evolutionary code modeling dust and metallicity damping of the UV signal, using data from the HST and the Spitzer / IRAC as well as Monte Carlo simulation data, and data from libraries of spectral energy distributions (SEDs). This helped provide a test would be to find higher redshift galaxies with discernible Lyman and Balmer breaks in the then future, next generation JWST data. Here is their data and analysis summarized before we turn again to Labbe et al. (2022).

Let's look at what they found keeping in mind the model and instrumentation uncertainties. They found 13 galaxies with a Lyman break (λrest = 1216 Angstroms) and a Balmer break (λrest ~ 3600 Angstroms), at photometric redshifts of 6.5 < z < 9.1, equivalent to look-back times of 12.872 Gya (supposedly 0.850 Gyr post-BB) to 13.179 Gya (supposedly 0.543 Gyr post-BB). The first image from the preprint was represented thus.

What is so troublesome about fitting in these data is that such are not expected nor predicted within the limits of the ΛCDM Big Bang, and yet there they are, even in the model-laden analyses. Without the limitations of the ΛCDM Big Bang, these data are well-accommodated within what is known about our Universe. The prediction continues to be borne out: At the farthest limits of resolution of our best instruments, galaxies of varying ages and masses continue to appear, just as expected if the Universe is indefinitely or infinitely old.  

Also on 25 July 2022 (Thursday) another bombshell paper dropped by Donnan et al. (https://arxiv.org/abs/2207.12356) which was eventually published on 21 November of 2022: Donnan, C. T. et al. 2022. The evolution of the galaxy UV luminosity function at redshifts z ≃ 8 - 15 from deep JWST and ground-based near-infrared imaging. MNRAS 518 (4), 6011. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stac3472. These are staggering look-back times according to the calculations: z ~ 8 is equivalent to
13.076 Gya (supposedly 0.646 Gyr post-BB) and z ~ 15 is equivalent to 13.450 Gya (supposedly 0.272 Gyr post-BB). The authors even found a distant CEERs galaxy with a The evolution of the galaxy UV luminosity function at redshifts &#x00A0;&#x2013;&#x00A0; from deep JWST and ground-based near-infrared imaging z ≃ 16.4 which is equivalent to a 13.482 Gya look-back time (supposedly only 0.240 Gyr post-BB). Their data combined COSMOS field ground-based data with the very deep JWST data. Here are some figures representing this astonishing data set. The spectral energy distributions (SED), the UV luminosity function (LF), and the stellar populations with no primordial Population III stars (BB-model star populations with only hydrogen), and smaller galaxies expected in a non-expanding Universe all come together in this study.

SED = spectral energy distribution, in this case of 4 chosen representative high redshift galaxies.

The UV LF refers to the UV luminosity function.

Contrary to the claims of Oesch et al. (2018), the so-called 'halo evolution model' (related to the star formation rate) did not drop off, but 'followed a steady, exponential decline,' as expected we might say, in an eternal Universe.

Even the highest redshift galaxy in this study, CEERS-93316, followed a SED of a normal galaxy, and there were no primordial Population III stars found.

In order to maintain the expanding cosmos illusion, this galaxy had to be a fraction of the size of our Milky Way galaxy, impossibly dense. This paper on multiple points did not yield data in harmony with the Big Bang predictions.

Metallicity in high redshift objects. Below is a galaxy which JWST found with a look-back time of 13.1 Gya in the SMACs Abell Cluster so-called gravitationally-lensed background. This galaxy has a redshift of z ~8.7 or a look-back time of
13.145 Gya (supposedly 0.577 Gyr post-BB), and yet, the galaxy shows high metallicity in its emission spectrum.

An excellent comparative resource is the "Table of Galaxy Emission lines from 700A to 11,000A" (link) summarized by
Drew Chojnowski (link). These emission spectral lines emerge from various ionization processes which have been historically observed in galaxies, AGNs, and QSOs (along with their quantum orbital configurations and other tabulated details, including the astronomers' references for observation), about which he wisely states, " This page does not theorize on lines that could or should be observed in such objects - only lines that have been observed are listed" (italic emphasis his). In so doing, he takes a cosmology-model neutral and actualist empirical position. The atomic spectral data are sourced from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Atomic Spectra Database: Kramida, A., Ralchenko, Yu., Reader, J. and NIST ASD Team (2022). NIST Atomic Spectra Database (version 5.10), [Online]. Available: https://physics.nist.gov/asd [Tue Jun 06 2023]. National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD. DOI: https://doi.org/10.18434/T4W30F.


30 October 2022 (Sunday) released. In another major surprise of a galaxy with unexpected metallicity, Bo Peng and colleagues dropped a paper (https://arxiv.org/abs/2210.16968) Peng et al. 2023. Discovery of a dusty, chemically mature companion to a z∼4 starburst galaxy in JWST ERS data. ApJ Letters 944 (2), L36. https://doi.org/10.3847/2041-8213/acb59c, which both show evidence of unpredicted high metallicity. What they found is summarized thus with comments:
Implications. Now, lets get down to the serious data and their implications. Nearly solar elemental abundances and super-solar metallicity imply stellar ages approaching the Sun's and older than the Sun, including the prior generation of stars generating the high metallicity, including the dust obscuration. According to the HBBC ΛCDM modeling, this system cannot be older than about 1.459 Gyr, and one must subtract the so-called "dark ages" with the putative CMB last surface of scattering date (LOL) at recombination at 370,000 yr post-BB to ~1 Gya post-BB with reionization, so that gives 0.459 Gyr or 459 Myr to generate 2 generations of stars, and all of that resulting metallicity, dust, and galaxy companion(s) coalescing, including one with an apparent defined disk shape. So what's our time difference?

Well, how old is our Sun, not counting the previous generation of stars, supernovae of which seeded the elemental abundances in the solar proto-planetary disk? Our Sun has a relativistically-corrected age of 4.57 +/- 0.11 Gyr according to Bonanno, A., Schlattl, H., Paterno, L. 2002. The age of the Sun and the relativistic corrections in the EOS. Astronomy and Astrophysics 390 (3), 1115. https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361:20020749. This corroborates the independent radiometric dating by U-corrected Pb-Pb dating of the first solids in our Sun's protoplanetary disk: Transcient heating events formed calcium-alluminum rich inclusions (CAIs) within an interval of 4567.30 +/- 0.16 Myr, while chondrules range from 4567.32 +/- 0.42 Myr to 4564.71+/- 0.30 Myr, suggesting that the chondrule formation started contemporaneously with CAI formation, and lasted about ~3 Myr; Connelly et al. 2012. The absolute chronology and thermal processing of solids in the solar protoplanetary disk. Science 338 (6107), 651. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1226919. Now we also have two independent stellar dating methods, color-based isochrone fitting and gyrochronology: Angus et al. 2019. Toward precise stellar ages: Combining isochrone fitting with empirical gyrochronology. Astron. J. 158 (5), 173. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-3881/ab3c53.

Needless to point out, the stellar fusion used in ~4.57 Gyr plus the previous generation of stars will not fit into 0.459 Gyr, nearly 10x less time. Nor would anyone attempt to do so if it were not for
HBBC ΛCDM established model. Furthermore, we have an H0 relation-based look-back time of 12.262 Gya plus our ~4.57 Gya for solar and super-solar metallicity, or let's modestly round it up because of supernova stellar generation inclusion, so that we have 12.262 + ~5 Gyr which would be > ~17.262 Gyr, not a problem in an indefinitely old or eternal Universe, but quite impossible in the epicycle-propped HBBC.  

For comparison we see the Arp 220 and M82 systems:
The Arp 220 System

Arp 220 Arp 220 with its putative ejected companions (see Chapter IX. Jets.html).
The M82 System

The M82 (link) system has multiple putative ejected higher redshift QSOs associated with it (see Chapter IX. Jets.html).

A final remark on this fascinating paper relates to how the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of SPT0418-47, its companion SPT0418-SE, and the 'ring' are with the SEDs like the quite matured and active galactic nucleated (AGN) Seyfert galaxies Arp 220 (with about a trillion stars) and the explosive M82. Although the official HST and JWST websites don't mention this, both of these galaxies are associated with vast-scale explosive ejections of compact high redshift objects (see chapter IX).
14 December 2022 (Wednesday) released. The JWST North Ecliptic Pole Time Domain Field (NEPTDF) data is released showing a wide-angle, medium-deep (~29 mag) 2 degree swath of distant galaxies some with look-back times of nearly 13.5 Gya, and including thousands of galaxies of different distances and stellar ages as far as the exposure set 'eyes' can see. The figures were released with the publication of Windhorst, R. A. et al. 2023. JWST PEARLS. Prime extragalactic areas for reionization and lensing science: Project overview and first results. ApJ 165 (1), 13. https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.3847/1538-3881/aca163.

Here is the North Ecliptic Pole Time Domain Field collection of JWST images (https://webbtelescope.org/contents/media/images/01GM3WVZFBH5S7Y6E0EXH1EH0Y). Note that all galaxy morphologies and all galactic stellar ages (cf. CMD and HRD) are represented, just as expected in a Universe indefinitely old or eternal.

JWST NEPTD Field main image (link).


JWST NEPTD Field clean image (link).

JWST NEPTD Field annotated image (link).

The coloration process based on HST and JWST color range filters enables us to see the approximate stellar ages of the galaxies at the time the light left them en route to the rest of the Universe including us. As with all the deep fields from all the space telescopes, JWST NEPTD Field illustrates that galaxies of all ages and distances are visible as far as can be seen. This is consistent with galaxies having different origination times and inhabiting an indefinitely old or eternal Universe.

14 February 2023 released; last revised 19 May 2023. In February 2023, Bunker et al. (2023) released (https://arxiv.org/abs/2302.07256), JADES NIRSpec Spectroscopy of GN-z11: Lyman-α emission and possible enhanced nitrogen abundance in a z = 10.60 luminous galaxy. version 2: https://arxiv.org/abs/2302.07256v2, or https://doi.org/10.48550/arXiv.2302.07256) where they apply the JWST NIRSpec spectrum-taking capability to the distant object GN-z11 discovered by HST, and which is the most luminous galaxy in the GOODS-N field. Bunker et al. (2023) re-determined the redshift of z = 10.603, meaning a look-back time of
13.281 Gya (supposedly 0.441 Gyr post-BB).

Bunker et al. (2023)

The C III / He II vs C III / C IV ratios cannot commit this galaxy to either photoionization by AGNs (active galactic nuclei) nor SFG (star-formation galaxy) suggest that both may be the case.

The redshift offset of Lyα versus the Balmer Hγ emissions suggest that there is possibly an outflow of neutral hydrogen from the AGN, as one explanation.

Bunker et al. (2023).

In brief, Bunker et al. (2023) found evidences of complex chemical development and metallicity in a distant AGN / starburst galaxy with a very high redshift, as if it were in the middle of a much broader field of evolving galaxies. And this was supposedly only ~400 Myr post-BB.

01 March 2023 released: published February 2024. Another very early and highly metallic galaxy has been found which may be of paradigmatic significance. What was first observed as a mere 'speck of light' by HST turns out to be one of the most enormous galaxies in the observed Universe according to a LiveScience report, "Speck of light spotted by Hubble is one of the most enormous galaxies in the early universe, James Webb telescope reveals" (18 Mar 2024). That this object was a galaxy, designated Gz9p3 when discovered by HST, was confirmed by spectroscopy by Boyett, K.  Trenti, M., Leethochawalit, N. et al. 2023. A massive interacting galaxy 525 million years after the Big Bang. arXiv (01 Mar 2023; v1): https://arxiv.org/abs/2303.00306v1. arXiv (27 Feb 2024; v2): https://arxiv.org/abs/2303.00306v2. Nat Astron. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41550-024-02218-7. Adopting a standard ΛCDM cosmology with parameters H0 = 70 kms-1 Mpc-1, Ωm = 0.3, and Ω = 0.7, they
applied the measured redshift for this galaxy of z = 9.3127 ± 0.0002, leading to a look-back time of 12.952 Gyr (supposedly 0.511 Gyr post-BB).

In short, this galaxy Gz9p3 exhibits heavy mass, advanced stellar populations, and a higher metallicity than paradigmatically-expected ~0.5 Gy after the Big Bang, including metallic emission and absorption lines. The authors argue for rapid buildup through mergers, but one only has to assume drastic and rapid properties if one insists on the immediacy of the Big Bang model.

Prediction. Such massive, high metallicity galaxies with maturing stellar populations will continue to be found as JWST and other telescopes continue to probe deeper into the range of higher redshift distant galaxies.
Boyett et al. (2023).

14 March 2023 released; published April 2023. In March of 2023, concerning again the high redshift galaxy known from the HST, Charbonnel et al. (2023) released (arXiv: https://arxiv.org/abs/2303.07955), N-enhancement in GN-z11: First evidence for supermassive stars nucleosynthesis in proto-globular clusters-like conditions at high redshift? A&A 673, L7. https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/202346410. This paper raised the issue of how to account for the high metallicity in the compact and distant galaxy, GN-z11 which has a redshift of z =10.6, equivalent to a look-back time of
13.281 Gya (supposedly, 0.441 Gly post-BB). The chemical maturity or metallicity of this early galaxy challenges the processes of stellar chemical evolution in astrophysics. The problem is that the CNO cycle of stellar nucleosynthesis should not produce a bunch of N, but very little O or C. Nagele, C. & Umeda, H. 2023. Multiple channels for nitrogen pollution by metal-enriched supermassive stars and implications for GN-z11. ApJL 949 (1), L16. https://doi.org/10.3847/2041-8213/acd550, used simulations to argue for multiple paths for super-solar N-enrichment through very short lived, hypothetical super massive stars (SMSs) which would explode and even further enrich or 'pollute' a system like GN-z11 with nitrogen (N). The write-up in Sky & Telescope magazine (AAS Nova, 13 June 2023, "Could supermassive stars explain how this galaxy got its it nitrogen?" wisely wrote, "Because GN-z11 does not show signs of abundant oxygen, this means that 1,000- and 10,000-solar-mass stars are unlikely sources of the galaxy's nitrogen" (https://skyandtelescope.org/astronomy-news/could-supermassive-stars-explain-how-this-galaxy-got-its-nitrogen/). Charbonnel et al. (2023) and Nagele & Umeda (2023) both cite many papers which have tried to deal with this problem through exotic mechanisms such as SMSs, appeals to unknown early Universe conditions, or suspected early high density mergers, but the problem remains unsolved. One common sense-wielding reader quite innocently asked S&T, "...[It is] fairly well established that radiation pressure made it physically impossible for stars larger than about 80-100 solar masses to form. This is consistent with the brightest and presumably most massive stars that have been observed in the Milky Way, the Magellanic Clouds, and M31. So how do you get stars up to 1000x more massive in the first place?.... Also, isn't a metal abundance of only -1 in the Log relative to the Sun pretty high for so early a time? I thought field halo stars in the Milky Way were at about -3 max, and there used to be talk of a (previous) primordial Population III at -5 or -7 (or even lower). Where do they get one tenth solar from without a previous generation (or several) of stars?" (Emphasis added; link). Good cosmological questions indeed, the honest answers to which reveal the need for a better cosmological model!

19 April 2023 (Wednesday)
released; published 29 June 2023 (: JWST).  

Disk galaxies with ancient, mature, mixed stellar populations, are the result of galactic morphological evolution, and long stellar evolution.

Disk galaxies considered to be the result of long processes and they are more common than expected in the standard Big Bang cosmology (link).

19 April 2023 (Wednesday) released; published 01 October 2023: An earlier and more expansive version of the paper was published on 03 October 2022 on arXiv: Ferreira et al. 2022. The JWST Hubble sequence: The rest-frame optical evolution of galaxy structure at 1.5 < z < 8. https://arxiv.org/abs/2210.01110, with z-values all the way out to z ~ 8, equivalent in look-back time to 13.076 Gly, supposedly a mere 0.646 Gyr post-BB (Wright, 2006 online calculator: https://www.astro.ucla.edu/~wright/ACC.html). This has since been domesticated into Ferreira et al. 2023. The JWST Hubble sequence: The rest-frame optical evolution of galaxy structure at 1.5 < z < 6.5. ApJ 955 (2), 94. https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.3847/1538-4357/acec76/pdf; https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/acec76 The JWST Hubble Sequence: The Rest-frame Optical Evolution of Galaxy Structure at 1.5 < z < 6.5 . The write-up life is in the Live Science link with the wonderful title, "James Webb telescope spots thousands of Milky Way lookalikes that 'shouldn't exist' swarming across the early universe." This domesticated study utilized optical classification for 3,956 galactic sources to look for signs of rest-frame optical galactic evolution between 1.5 < z < 6.5, across look-back times from ~11.550 Gyr (supposedly 2.172 Gyr post-BB) to ~12.872 Gyr (supposedly Gyr post-BB) using JWST data compared with HST data. We will also briefly contrast the October 2022 version of the paper with the domesticated October 2023 version. HBBC prediction: In a Big Bang cosmos about ~13.8 Gyr in age, we should see a fairly rapid evolution at higher redshifts of merging irregular small galaxies forming larger galaxies, with evolving stellar populations, and later forming the Hubble 'tuning fork' sequence of galaxy morphologies, with mature stellar populations across the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. In summary, there should be evolving counts of the various galactic morphological types across look-back time, which is not what we see either in this domesticated paper or in the more expansive arXiv version with z < 8.

This study was in essence testing that prediction with widest, earliest classification of galactic morphologies taken to date, from among the CEERS and the CANDELS space telescopic data sets.

All of the galaxies were submitted through a software-based data analysis classification pipeline deciding between the following shape categories:
  • (1) unclassifiable: unresolved, not visible, too faint / artifactual,
  • (2) point sources: smaller in angular size than the Gaussian full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the point-spread function (PSFFWHM) such that the resolution is consistent with point sources, without extended components,
  • (3) disks: resolved with an outer area of lower surface brightness regularly increasing toward the center, not dependent on whether there is a spiral or bar pattern present,
  • (4) spheroid: resolved, symmetrically and centrally-concentrated with smooth profile, round or elliptical in shape,
  • (5) peculiar: well-resolved, where peculiarity or disturbance dominates over any smooth components.

Notice how steady the stellar mass threshold near the mean stellar mass of the stellar mass-redshift distribution is across the redshift bins, even while the resolution declines with greater distance / look-back times.

 Rest-frame optical galactic sources representative of the 3 of the categories of samples in the Ferreira et al. (2023) study.

Figure 4 shows 3 measures of the three galaxy morphologies considered: (top) effective radius (Rn); (middle) axis ratio (a/b); and (bottom) information entropy. Figure 6 compares log asymmetry vs. log spirality for a larger mass bin. Figure 8 shows the Sersic index or profile (link) of the mathematical relation of how intensity (I) varies with radius (R) from the center of a galaxy.

Figure 5 shows the concentrations of asymmetry in morphologies across various redshift bins. There seems to be very little change, except related to perhaps declining resolution with greater redshifts.

Figure 7 shows the non-radial asymmetry in a Cartesian to polar coordinate transformation representation of three of the categorized galaxy morphologies studied.

Figure 9 shows the morphology fractions for two mass bins across redshifts of z < 2 to z > 6.

Figure 10 shows the morphology fractions per specific star formation rates (sSFRs) across various redshift bins.

Figures 11 and 12 show morphology fractions (fm) per total stellar mass & redshift, as well as per star formation rate (fSMR) & redshift, respectively. Compare with the Ferreira et al. 2022 equivalent figures below.

Ferreira et al. 2023 Figures 11 & 12.

Ferreira et al. 2022 (arXiv) Figures 10 and 11 show morphology fractions (fm) per total stellar mass & redshift, as well as per star formation rate (fSMR) & redshift, respectively. Note, that similar to the HST images, the JWST image resolutions also decline as expected with higher redshift and distance. 

Ferreira et al. 2022 Figures 10 & 11 (arXiv).

Figure 13 shows estimated fractions of spheroid and disk morphology galaxies out into distance obscurity beyond z > 6, with the more expansive
z > 8 in Ferreira et al. 2022 (arXiv version). Note the adjustments made between the October 2023 version (Left) and the more expansive October 2022 version from arXiv (Right).

Ferreira et al. 2023. Figure 13.

Ferreira et al. 2022. Figure 12 (arXiv).

Figure 14 shows representative comparisons between select galaxies assayed for morphology between the HST and the JWST. Many features are very clearly visible in JWST imagery, while sometimes only the core of the galaxy is visible in HST imagery (see Fig. 14 legend). This is illustrative of how the limiting factor is the telescopic resolution, not supposedly evolutionary features in these distant galaxies.

In summary, what can be safely said of significance is what the authors note: "For galaxies with higher masses M* > 109 M
, the fractions of disks / spheroids / peculiars appear to be roughly constant at 1.5 < z < 6.5." To this we may add from the more expansive Ferreira et al. 2022 (arXiv version) that not only do we have the full Hubble-de Vaucouleurs galaxy morphology series present for redshift distances z > 6, which translates to look-back times >12.951 Gly (supposedly ~0.771 Gy post-BB), but also in the Ferreira et al. 2022 version on arXiv we have the full Hubble-de Vaucouleurs galaxy morphology series going out to z < 8, i.e., look-back times 13.076 Gly, supposedly 0.646 Gyr post-BB. The evolution of Milky Way like spiral galaxies and the entire Hubble sequence of galaxy morphologies was present very early, and perhaps the only limiting factor is the resolution limits of the JWST. If we were to let galaxy formation and star formation rates speak for themselves, there were mature stellar galaxies of various masses >12 Gly distant, which is actually >13 Gly.

A not-very-daring prediction
: Larger telescopes with higher resolutions at these same wavelengths as JWST will continue to show the ongoing pattern of an ever present full Hubble-de Vaucouleurs morphology series out into distance obscurity at the limits of that larger observatory's resolution:

The Hubble-de Vaucouleurs galaxy morphology classification (link).

13 September 2023 released: The paper of Frye, B. L. et al. 2023. The JWST discovery of the triply-imaged Type Ia 'Supernova H0pe' and observations of the galaxy cluster PLCK G165.7+67.0. https://arxiv.org/abs/2309.07326 occasioned some breathless excitement about resolving the most pressing 'crisis in cosmology' question according to HBBC proponents, and that is the rate of expansion of the cosmos."
JWST's first triple-image supernova could save the Universe" (link) exclaimed one science news outlet.


The examination of the fortuitously gravitationally-lensed Type Ia supernova in PLCK G165.7+67.0 may help refine the value of the H0 in forthcoming papers, which may decrease the 'Hubble tension' or at least that is the hope, hence the quaint name,
'Supernova H0pe'—not much more of paradigmatic importance than that so far.

More evidence has come in with 2024 on the finding on mature, massive galaxies with high redshifts. Back in 2016, the Four Star Galaxy Evolution Survey (ZFOURGE) of over >70,000 galaxies resulting in ~60,000 with redshifts of z > 1 (look-back times >7.818 Gya, supposedly 5.904 Gy post-BB: https://zfourge.tamu.edu/#), using the Four Star infrared camera on the Magellan Baade 6.5 m telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory (Chile). These galaxies were surveyed in the HST legacy fields of CDFS, COSMOS, and UDS (https://zfourge.tamu.edu/data/), which can be visually explored as well. This survey was published in Straatman, C. M. S., et al. 2016. The FourStar Galaxy Evolution Survey (ZFOURGE): ultraviolet to far-infrared catalogs, medium-bandwidth photometric redshifts with improved accuracy, stellar masses, and confirmation of quiescent galaxies to z ~ 3.5. arXiv: https://arxiv.org/abs/1608.07579. ApJ 830 (1), 51. https://doi.org/10.3847/0004-637X/830/1/51, and including the 2017 Data Release (link). z ~ 3.5; lookback time of
~11.898 Gya (supposedly ~1.824 Gy post-BB).  

Animation of a sample of the ZFOURGE database galaxy spectral energy distributions (SEDs) across several redshifts.


Straatman et al. 2016

SFR = star formation rate vs. solar mass in solar units M.

Notice the rather steady fractions across redshift values of sigma z-value errors and especially fractions of magnitudes (Fig. 16, first & second rows) and in blue star formation rates (Fig. 16, 3rd row) and red star formation rates (Fig. 16, 4th row). The redshift bins go from z ~ 0.5 (look-back time ~ 5.093 Gya, supposedly  8.629 Gy post-BB) up through z ~ 4 (look-back time ~12.163 Gya, supposedly ~1.559 Gy post-BB). 

It is important to notice the broad variation or scatter in magnitudes (Fig. 23) and also in stellar masses (Fig. 24). It is very likely that the limiting factor here is the instrumental limits in detection, not an actual paucity of representatives of the galaxy categories at the higher redshifts.

With the advent of JWST operation, papers began to come out furthering the work on old, massive, quiescent galaxies, which of course are signs of galaxy age and maturity.

09 November 2023 (Thursday)
released (JWST). In the quest to find distant time-varying transients, objects which vary in brightness over shorter intervals, in the medium deep fields, JWST returned to a field exposure done by the HST. Combined the HST and JWST provided some of the most colorful deep images of the Universe ("NASA's Webb, Hubble Combine to Create Most Colorful View of Universe," link). In the process of searching for transients, the two space telescopes provided a combined colored image of galaxies with different colored stellar populations and ages, where colors represent wavelengths / frequencies:

(Image with wavelength coloration from both HST and JWST filters; link).

The transients were reported in Yan et al. (2023). JWST's PEARLS: Transients in the MACS J0416.1-2403 field. v2. https://arxiv.org/abs/2307.07579, and in Diego et al. (2023). JWST’s PEARLS: Mothra, a new kaiju star at z = 2.091 extremely magnified by MACS0416, and implications for dark matter models. (arXiv: https://arxiv.org/abs/2307.10363). A&A 679, A31. https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/202347556.

09 January 2024 released, published. Veteran distance ladder calibrator and Nobel laureate, Adam Riess and colleagues did further work to resolve the Hubble tension between standard Cepheid variable and the CMB-derived values of the H0 constant: Riess, A. G., et al. 2024. JWST observations reject unrecognized crowding of Cepheid photometry as an explanation for the Hubble Tension at 8σ confidence. (arXiv: https://arxiv.org/abs/2401.04773). ApJ Letters 962 (1), L17. https://doi.org/10.3847/2041-8213/ad1ddd. We turn to these remarkable results next, which have a bearing on the data indicating a 'Hubble tension' in the measurements of H0 as introduced with discussion in chapter VII. Unexpected Galactic Redshifts. This study is a follow up based on JWST data from
the November of 2022 paper, Yuan et al. 2022. A first look at Cepheids in Type Ia supernova host with JWST. ApJ Letters 940, L17. https://doi.org/10.3847/2041-8213/ac9b27, which showed no JWST resolution of the 'Hubble tension' between the HST and the JWST preliminary results on the nearby galaxy NGC 1365. 

14 February 2024 v3 released (submitted 22 Dec 2022): Another paper on distant, faint and quiescent galaxies was Nanayakkara, T., Glazebrook, K., et al. 2024. A population of faint, old, and massive quiescent galaxies at 3 < z < 4 revealed by JWST NIRSpec Spectroscopy. arXiv: https://arxiv.org/abs/2212.11638. Sci Rep 14, 3724 (2024). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-024-52585-4. The redshifts examined in this subset of massive, quiescent galaxies varied from z > 3 (look-back times >11.550 Gya, supposedly >2.172 Gy post-BB) up to z ~ 4 (look-back time ~12.163 Gya, supposedly ~.559 Gy post-BB). Of surprise to the authors was the 'rapid' massiveness of the galaxy set assayed: ~0.1 - 1.2 × 1011 M, the oldest one being ~1.0 × 1011 M.

Raw and reduced spectral data from the galaxies.

MOSFIRE = mult-object spectrometer for infra-red exploration
at the Keck Observatory, while of course, JWST / NIRSpec = Near infrared spectrometer.

Look-back times and supposed times post-BB for the galaxies assayed.

What is evident is that the galaxies with high redshifts can also be old, quiescent, massive, and have low luminosity. This result is not surprising, unless one is trying to shoe horn all galactic and stellar evolution into the time straitjacket of the HBBC.

14 February 2024 released (submitted 10 Aug 2023). The Glazebrook, K., et al. 2024. A massive galaxy that formed its stars at z ~ 11. arXiv: https://arxiv.org/abs/2308.05606. Nature. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-024-07191-9, has also been popularly heralded as "James Webb telescope finds ancient galaxy larger than our Milky Way, and it's threatening to upend cosmology" (Livescience link). We turn next to these remarkable results. Adopting a cosmology of Ωm = 0.3, ΩΛ = 0.7, H0 = 70 km−1 s−1 Mpc−1, the authors show that this distant galaxy ZF-UDS-7329 has features of a quiescent massive post-starburst galaxy nearby, with older stellar populations with evidences of higher metallicity than expected in the ΛCDM model. With this cosmology, ZF-UDS-7329 has a look-back time of 13.056 Gya, supposedly 0.407 Gy post-BB.

Galaxy ZF-UDS-7329, z ~ 11 (link).

An important first observation is that the ZF-UDS-7329 galaxy morphology is quite mature and regular, showing morphological maturity as well as stellar population maturity. The spectral data are central. And remember that this galaxy has a redshift of z ~ 11, suggesting a look-back time of 13.056 Gya, at the supposed model
age of 0.407 Gy post-BB.

If this mature and ancient galaxy nearing some of the limits of JWST is present and observed, it is suggestive that there are other such mature and very high redshift galaxies out there / back there as well.  

JWST Diary in Progress!