VIII. Radio galaxies: Strange powerhouses of intergalactic space-time

Double-lobed and active galactic radio sources—jetting ejecta

1948 and beyond

J. G. Bolton (1948)
Sea Cliff Interferometer
(Above) the Sea Cliff Interferometer, Dover Heights, New South Wales (link); (below) John G. Bolton in August of 1952 at the International Union of Radio Science conference held at the University of Sydney (link).
JGB
Bolton, J., Stanley, G. (1948). "Variable Source of Radio Frequency Radiation in the Constellation of Cygnus". Nature 161: 312. doi:10.1038/161312b0.


VLA
Images of the Very Large Array (VLA) Observatory of radio telescopes forming a large interferometer near Socorro, New Mexico.

The VLA is a huge facility among others of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). What is even more important for radio astronomy is that many facilities widely scattered on Earth can be synchronized to do observations of the same locations in the skies, increasing resolution through long baseline interferometry. A full data archive from NRAO is also available.


Light is emitted in the Universe emerges with different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, from the short gamma radiation through ultraviolet, visible light, infrared, microwave, X-rays, and radiowaves.

electromagnetic
          spectrumelectromagnetic_spectrum.jpg
Full electromagnetic spectrum (http://dragonphysics.pbworks.com/w/page/18192425/What%20is%20the%20Electromagnetic%20Spectrum).



The Sombrero
          Galaxy (M104) in visible and infrared.
Sombrero in
          optical, x-ray, and infrared
By looking at the galaxies at all these spectra, some of the most energetic events in the Universe have been discovered (http://www.spitzer.caltech.edu/images/1419-ssc2005-11a-Spitzer-Spies-Spectacular-Sombrero;http://www.redorbit.com/news/space/919931/sombrero_galaxy_a_great_observatories_view/).



RADIO GALAXIES, QSOs, & HIGH ENERGY JETS

(www.abc.net.au/science/ slab/sim/story.htm)
(www.cv.nrao.edu/~abridle/images)

Over the years, the double-lobes of the immense radio galaxies were found to be vast jets of high energy / high velocity particles being emitted from the cores of these galaxies. The source of the energies generated in these massive explosive events (up to 1060 ergs) has never been satisfactorily explained in the standard black hole / accretion disk model. In this section, we focus on the empirical radio wavelength imaging and mapping of energetic radiogalaxies and their parts of the sky. Many of these are associated with violent ejection and interaction phenomena. 



In this opening section, we will include a few snapshots of bi-lobed opposite jet ejection phenomena symmetrically emerging from the hearts of radiogalaxies, a visual feast of invisible signals from the radio wave part of the electromagnetic spectrum.

 



3C83 Radio / optical superposition (NRAO)

Many of the following active galactic systems emitting in the radio frequencies were first observed optically in Halton Arp's 1966 Atlas of Peculiar Galaxies (Arp Atlas frames and PDF, Caltech) which contained a survey of nearly 340 unusual and disturbed galaxies, with the original full resolution optical photographic plates linked. Empirically, Arp categorized the disturbed galaxies in his Atlas thus in these 4 classifying figures:

Arp66-fig1 
Arp66-fig3 Arp66-fig4
In his 1966 preface, Arp wrote these words which raise questions still unanswered within the New Ptolemaic paradigm of the Big Bang cosmologies: "Forty years after the discovery that galaxies were independent stellar systems, we still have not penetrated very far into the mystery of how they maintain themselves or what physical forces are responsible for shaping their observed forms. The galaxies are the constituent units of mass and energy in the universe, and yet we are still challenged by such questions as: What causes the characteristic shape of spiral galaxies? How are elliptical galaxies related to spiral? How are galaxies formed, and how do they evolve?"

The ensuing years have brought a growing wealth of data in optical, radio, UV, IR, X-ray, and even gamma wavelengths on these galactic phenomena, but all of this light has yet to penetrate the citadel of the New Ptolemaic paradigm. Here we will lay some foundation for such a an illumination of the significance of these phenomena for the identification of a cosmogony more in keeping with the amazing data.




Active Galaxies at Neutral Atomic Hydrogen (HI) Emission (21 cm wavelength; 1420 MHz)

One excellent treasure of gorgeous data collected in the 1990s on these much underappreciated galactic phenomena is from radio astronomer, John Hibbard (NRAO, where he studied "the fate of gas in interacting galaxies" (home), from which he links a gallery of radio galaxies (as well as what he calls a living rogues gallery), with more images and data with his abstract on another gallery. There is also a page for the 20th anniversary of the VLA on "Gas and Galaxy Evolution."

As paradigmatically expected, Hibbard interprets the results entirely from with the HBBC paradigm of merging and tidally-interacting galaxies, rather than considering the hypothesis of ejecting open systems of galaxies. The data for much of his work is based on the highly penetrative HI or Hydrogen emission line with a wavelength of 21 cm, which has a frequency of 1420 Hz, generated by the excitation of neutral atomic Hydrogen, perhaps primordial, and by the imagery generating some of the largest galactic local objects detected.

HI

Following, among other data sets, are images containing both optical wavelength and HI emission line radiation contour imaging. Here is a guide to the radiogalaxy imagery published, a mosaic.

mosaic
"Background Figure Caption: A mosaic of VLA HI observations for a range of merging galaxies. To the left are 7 nearby systems with log(Lir)>11.5 (Hibbard & Yun 1996). To the right are 7 systems from the Toomre Sequence (Hibbard & van Gorkom 1996; English 1995 and English et al. in preparation; Hibbard et al. 2001; see also here). HI in white contours on optical image in false spectral colors. All reproduced on approximately the same linear scale, assuming Ho=75 km/s/Mpc. Click on galaxies for more observational details. Here are the HI moment 0 and HI moment 1 mosaics of the above." (https://www.cv.nrao.edu/~jhibbard/galaxies.html).


While many of the images utilize the HI emission line, HII region from where ionized Hydrogen thermal Bremsstrahlung emissions emerge across multiple orders of magnitude of wavelengths and energies.

s
A sampling of "optically normal systems with disturbed HI" emissions. Even with this quick sample, a quick look suggests ejection phenomena may be at work (https://www.cv.nrao.edu/~jhibbard/IAP15/E2.html).

Hibbard & Yun in August of 1995 gave a presentation at the Cold Gas at High Redshift meetings in Hoogeveen, NL: "The neutral hydrogen distribution in luminous IR galaxies": Featured were disturbed active galaxies Arp 299, Arp 220, Mkn 273, VV 114, IC 883, NGC 1614, and NGC 2623. (The HI data were obtained at the VLA in 9/94 (CnB array) & 1/95 (DnC array). The R image seen here is 600sec exposure from UH 88" f/10 on 96nov19 with 0.6").

(link: https://www.cv.nrao.edu/~jhibbard/LIRpaper/lir.html). Optical collage (negative).

R-band exposures in collage:

HI emissions in contour lines and colors:

Featured IR galaxies
Following are detailed color images of these galaxies with the superimposed radio isophotes:

The Arp 220 System
Arp 220
Arp 220.

 The Markarian 273 System
Markarian 273
Markarian 273


The
VV 114 (Arp 236 = IC1623) SystemVV114

Estimated distance 75 Mpc (Doyon et al. 1994).
visualxd
d
The HI and R-band emission of this system can be found in Hibbard & Yun, 1996; R + HI (contours, 20" resolution); R + HI (contours, 15" resolution);HI velocities (C-array only); HI on DSS, full FOV (continuum subtraction not optimized for companions, so they have negative contours opposite real emission).

The NGC 1614 System
NGC 1614
NGC 1614


The IC 883 System
IC 883
IC 883


The NGC 2623 System
NGC 2623
NGC 2623

Radio astronomer John Hibbard set up an NRAO page (up-kept until 2005) on "the fate of gas in interacting galaxies" (link).

According to the received wisdom these active galaxies with gas ejecta and so many more phenomena are all "merging systems." There is growing reasons to question this entire paradigm.

An illustration of the richness of the galactic phenomena with Hydrogen I (HI) emission are the results of VLA observations of HI in the galaxies of the Toomre Sequence (Toomre, 1977). Arp 295, NGC 4038/9, NGC 4676, NGC 520, NGC 2623, NGC 3256, NGC 3921, and NGC 7252:

Toomre seq mosaic
A mosaic of VLA HI observations from several "merging" galaxies of the Toomre Sequence.


Optical wavelength views: Toomre Sequence HST
Toomre sequences HST
Laine et al. (2003) showing morphology of this sequence (link).

Optical high resolution photos of the colors of the Toomre sequence may be found here (link):
Color of Toomre seq 
Color mosaic of the Toomre Sequence of galaxies (link).

The individual galaxies of the Toomre Sequence:

The Arp 295 System
Arp 295
Arp 295


The NGC 4038 / 4039 System

NGC 4038 / 4039: Often considered the famous classic merger. But is it really?


The NGC 4676 System
NGC 4676
NGC 4676


The NGC 520 System
NGC 520
NGC 520


The NGC 3921 System
NGC 3921

NGC 3921


The NGC 7252 System
NGC 7252
NGC 7252


Even in these putatively "merging" tidal systems in the Toomre sequence, there are reasons to question the paradigm, in favor of ejecta sources for these clouds of neutral hydrogen. Again, what are the real origins of these phenomena? Do these apparent HI ejecta involve primordial Hydrogen? So many questions remain yet unanswered.

We now turn to a few even more paradigm-unsettling HI phenomena from the living rogue's gallery of galaxies (link) and the new data entries since the published version (link), including even detached or ejected HI systems (link).

Surprise of discovery. In a fitting denouement to his and others' superb observational work in radio astronomy, Hibbard has a link heading exclaiming, "What you see is not what you get! (or: 'Why I do HI observations of galaxies')" (link). When following that, one finds a java-linked composite image with the heading, "Optically normal systems with disturbed HI"! There one may compare the optical images of these 'optically normal' galactic systems with and without the superimposed radio isophote maps:

Optically 'normal' galaxy systems
And with the unexpected radio isophotes: "Surprise!"
Surprise!


The Living HI Rogue's Gallery (link). Here we include the HI emission (and absorption) treasures from this gallery. Radio resolutions are given in arc-seconds ("), field of view (FOV) in arc-minutes ('), and the contours are integrated intensity mappings (link), according to this equation from Spitzer, 1978):

Where contours represent surface density with NHI being units of H atoms per cm2 (assuming thin optical density) obtained via the integrated flux  in spatial-temporal units of Joules, multiplied by a term quantifying a full width at half maximum (FWHM) size of the synthesized beam along the major and minor axis. Solid contour lines indicate HI emission, while dashed or light contour lines indicate HI absorption. (Figure legends cited from the link are placed in parentheses). 

The NGC 7213 system
NGC 7213
(Fig. 1. HI: ATCA, 52" x 42" resolution, contours=5 x 1019 cm-2 x 2n. Optical: DSS, FOV=17' x 16'.
Notes: The gradient to the northwest is due to the presence of a bright star.
Reference: Hameed, S., Blank, D. L., Young. L. M., & Devereux, N. 2001, ApJ, 546, L97.


The M83 System
M83
(Fig. 2. HI: ATCA 9-point mosaic + Parkes 64m, 62" x 38" resolution.
Optical: DSS, FOV=60' x 60'.
Reference: Park et al., these proceedings, p. 862.
)


The NGC 4449 system: The 'Jekyll & Hyde' galaxy

M83
                  system
(Fig. 3.
NGC4449: The ``Jekyll & Hyde'' Galaxy.
HI: VLA D-array, 62" x 55" resolution, contours=5
x 1019 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS, FOV=90' x 90'.
Reference: Hunter, D. A., Wilcots, E. M., van Woerden, H., Gallagher, J. S., & Kohle, S. 1998, ApJL 495, L47.
)


The blue compact dwarf I Zw 18 system
I Zw 18
(
Fig. 4. HI: VLA B+C+D-array, 8.8" x 8.3" resolution, contours=4 x 1019 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: WFPC F555W image from HST, FOV=2.5' x 2.7'.
Reference: van Zee, L., Westpfahl, D., & Haynes, M. P. 1998, AJ 115, 1000.
)


The Local Group dwarf Irregular IC 10
IC 10
(
Figure 05. HI: VLA B+C+D-array, 11'' resolution, lowest contour=5 1019 cm-2.
Optical: DSS, FOV=13.6' x 14.8' (top), 25' x 25' (bottom).
Notes: The dotted box in the lower left panel delineates the region of the optical images shown in the upper two panels.
Reference: Wilcots, E.M., & Miller, B.W., 1998, AJ 116, 2363.
)


The blue compact dwarf II Zw 40 system
Zw 40
(
Figure 06: The Blue Compact Dwarf II Zw 40.
HI: VLA B+C+CS-array, 17" x 15" resolution, contours=8
x 1019 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: KPNO 0.9m R-band, FOV=7.7' x 5.4'.
Reference: van Zee, L., Skillman, E. D., & Salzer, J. J. 1998, AJ 116, 1186.
)


The NGC 1376 / SBS 0335-052 system
SBS 0335-52
(
Figure 07: The Extremely Metal Poor Blue Compact Dwarf SBS 0335-052.
HI: VLA C+D-array, 20.5" x 15" resolution, contours=1
x 1020 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS, FOV=4' x 3' (top), 12' x 4' (bottom).
Reference: Pustilnik, S.A., Brinks, E., Thuan, T.X., Lipovetsky, V.A., & Izotov, Y.I. 2001, AJ 121, 1413.
)


The blue compact dwarf VII Zw 403 system
Zw 403
(
Figure 08: The Blue Compact Dwarf VII Zw 403.
HI: VLA C-array, 21" x 14.5" resolution, contours=5
x 1019 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS, FOV=4' x 4'.
Reference: Thuan, Hibbard & Levrier, these proceedings, p. 864.
)


The Haro 2 / Arp 233 system
Haro 2 / Arp 233
(
Figure 09: The Blue Compact Dwarf Haro 2.
HI: VLA C-array, 19" x 17" resolution, contours=1
x 1020 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS, FOV=1.7' x 1.9'.
Reference: Thuan, Hibbard & Levrier, these proceedings, p. 864.
)


The blue compact dwarf UGC 5288 system
UGC 5288
(
Figure 10: The Blue Compact Dwarf UGC 5288.
HI: VLA CS-array, 20.2" x 16.9" resolution, contours=8
x 1019 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: Top: DSS. Bottom: KPNO 0.9m B-band. FOV=10.1' x 9.4'.
Reference: van Zee & Haynes, these proceedings, p. 865.
)


The Arp 213 system
Arp 213
(
Figure 11: The Arp 213 System.
HI: VLA D-array, 67" x 51" resolution, contours=5
x 1018 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS, FOV=24' x 21'.
Reference: Iyer et al., these proceedings, p. 860.
)


The NGC 3982 system
NGC 3982
(
Figure 12: The NGC3982 System.
HI: VLA C-array, 17.6" x 16.6" resolution, contours=5
x 1019 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS, FOV=9' x 10'.
Notes: Member of the Ursa Major Cluster (Fig. 164). See Fig. 135 for a lower-resolution image.
Reference: Mundell, these proceedings, p. 411.
)


The Arp 214 / NGC 3718 system
Arp 214
(
Figure 13: The NGC3718 System.
HI: WSRT, 30'' resolution, contours=2
x 1020 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS, FOV=20' x 19'.
Notes: Member of the Ursa Major Cluster. See also Fig. 164.
Reference: Verheijen, M. A. W., & Sancisi, R. 2001, A&A 370, 765.
)


The blue compact dwarf UGC 521 system
UGC 521
(
Figure 14: The Blue Compact Dwarf UGC 521.
HI: VLA CS-array, 19" x 17.4" resolution, contours=8
x 1019 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: Left: DSS. Right: KPNO 0.9m B-band. FOV=5' x 7'.
Reference: van Zee & Haynes, these proceedings, p. 865.
)


The NGC 4013 system
NGC 4013
(
Figure 15: The NGC4013 System.
HI: WSRT, 30'' resolution, contours=1
x 1020 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS, FOV=11' x 11'.
Notes: Member of the Ursa Major Cluster.
Reference: Bottema, R. 1995, A&A, 295, 605, and Verheijen, M. A. W., & Sancisi, R. 2001, A&A 370, 765.
)


The IC 5078 system
IC 5078
(
Figure 16: The IC5078 System.
HI: VLA D-array, 108.3" x 51.5" resolution, contours=3
x 1019 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: WIYN R-band, FOV=12' x 8'.
Reference: Pisano & Wilcots, these proceedings, p. 501.
)


The NGC 895 system
NGC 895
(
Figure 17: The NGC895 System.
HI: VLA D-array, 76'' resolution, contours=2
x 1019 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: WIYN R-band, FOV=14' x 15'.
Reference: Pisano & Wilcots, these proceedings, p. 501.
)


The NGC 3885 system
NGC 3885
(
Figure 18: The NGC 3885 System.
HI: VLA D-array, 60'' resolution, contours=4
x 1019 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS, FOV=15' x 15'.
Notes: The companion galaxy has no cataloged counterpart.
Reference: Hameed & Young, these proceedings, p. 857.
)


The UGC 8331 system
UGC 8331
(
Figure 19: The UGC 8331 System.
HI: WSRT, 30'' resolution, contours=1
x 1020 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS, FOV=8' x 9'.
Reference: Swaters, R. A., 1999, PhD thesis, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, and Swaters, R.A., van Albada, T.S., van der Hulst, J.M., & Sancisi, R., 2001, A&AS submitted.
)


The UGC 11152 system
UGC 11152
(
Figure 20: The UGC11152 System.
HI: VLA D-array, 66'' resolution, contours=3
x 1019 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: WIYN B-band, FOV=8' x 6'.
Reference: Pisano & Wilcots, these proceedings, p. 501.
)


The NGC 4639 / 4654 system
NGC 4639 / 4654
(
Figure 21: The NGC4639/4654 System.
HI: VLA C+D-array, 27.5" x 23.5" resolution, contours=4
x 1019 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS, FOV=24' x 20'.
Reference: Phookun, B., & Mundy, L. G. 1995, ApJ 453, 154.
)


The ESO 572-G045 system
ESO 572-G045
(
Figure 22: The ``Superthin'' galaxy ESO 572-G045.
HI: VLA C+D-array. Left panel: 40'' resolution, contours=1
x 1020 cm-2 x 2n/2. Middle panel: 27" x 16" resolution, contours=1 x 1020 cm-2 x 2n/2. Right panel: 11" x 7.4" resolution, contours=4 x 1020 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS, FOV=2.9' x 3.5'.
Notes: Companion to the merging system NGC4038/9 (see Fig. 65).
Reference: Hibbard, J.E., van der Hulst, J. M., Barnes, J. E., & Rich, R. M. 2001, AJ in press.
)


The IC 3355 system
IC 3355
(
Figure 23: The IC 3355 System.
HI: VLA D-array, 58" x 48" resolution, contours=2
x 1019 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS, FOV=8' x 7'.
Notes: Member of the Virgo cluster near M86. See also Fig. 167.
Reference: Observed in the field of NGC 4406 (M86) by Li & van Gorkom, these proceedings, p. 637.
)


The NGC 4522 system
NGC 4522
(
Figure 24: The NGC4522 System.
HI: VLA C-array, 19.7" x 15.5" resolution, contours=1
x 1020 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS, FOV=4' x 5'.
Reference: Kenney, van Gorkom, & Vollmer, these proceedings, p. 861.
)


The Arp 120 system
Arp 120
(
Figure 25: The Arp 120 System.
HI: VLA D-array, 58" x 48" resolution, contours=2
x 1019 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS, FOV=10' x 13'.
Notes: Member of the Virgo cluster near M86. See also Fig. 167.
Reference: Observed in the field of NGC 4406 (M86) by Li & van Gorkom, these proceedings, p. 637.
)


The NGC 3079 system
NGC 3079
(
Figure 26: The NGC3079 System.
HI: VLA D-array, contours=(0.5, 1, 1.5, 2.4, 4, 10, 15, 25, 45)
x 1020 cm-2. Resolution: 48" x 40" NGC 3079; 67" x 57" others.
Optical: DSS, FOV=19.2' x 17.8'.
Reference: Irwin, J.A., Seaquist, E.R., Taylor, A.R., & Duric, N. 1987, ApJ 313, L91.
)


The blue compact dwarf Arp 266 / NGC 4861 system
Arp 266
(
Figure 27: The Blue Compact Dwarf NGC4861.
HI: VLA C-array. Lower panels: contours at 5
x 1019 cm-2 x 2n, 19" x 15" resolution. Lower right: at 35'' resolution, greyscales range from 5 x 1019 - 2 x 1020 cm-2.
Optical: DSS, FOV=7.0' x 7.2' (top), 10.8' x 9.6' (lower right).
Notes: The low resolution data reveal an extended envelope and an companion which has no apparent counterpart on the DSS image.
Reference: Thuan, Hibbard & Levrier, these proceedings, p. 864.
)


The ESO 124-G015 system
ESO 124-G015
(
Figure 28: The ESO 124-G015 System.
HI: ATCA, 58.3' x 54.5" resolution, contours=5
x 1019 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: B-band, FOV=8' x 7'.
Reference: Pisano & Wilcots, these proceedings, p. 501.
)


The NGC 3359 system
NGC 3359
(
Figure 29: The NGC 3359 System.
HI: WSRT. Solid contours: 30'' resolution, levels=3
x 1019 cm-2 x 2n. Dotted contour: 60'' resolution, 5 x 1018 cm-2.
Optical: DSS, FOV=35.0' x 35'2'.
Reference: Boonyasait, Gottesman & Broeils, these proceedings, p. 856.
)


The M108 system
M108
(
Figure 30: The M108 System.
HI: VLA D-array, 61" x 53" resolution, contours=1
x 1019 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS, FOV=24' x 11'.
Notes: The redshift of MCG+09-19-001 is unknown.
Reference: King, D., & Irwin, J. A. 1997, New Astronomy, 2, 251.
)


The NGC 6239 system
NGC 6239
(
Figure 31: The NGC6239 System.
HI: VLA D-array, 18.2" x 16.7" resolution, contours=8
x 1019 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS, FOV=17' x 12'.
Notes: The companion to the northeast has no cataloged counterpart.
Reference: Hogg & Roberts, these proceedings, p. 858.
)


The NGC 1012 system
NGC 1012
(
Figure 32: The NGC 1012 System.
HI: VLA D-array, 19.7" x resolution, contours=8
x 1018 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS, FOV=13' x 16'.
Reference: Hogg & Roberts, these proceedings, p. 858.
)


The NGC 2777 system
NGC 2777
(
Figure 33: The Amorphous Galaxy NGC 2777.
HI: VLA D-array, 52" x 47" resolution, contours=2;25
x 1019 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS, FOV=8.9' x 8.8'.
Notes: The SA(r)ab galaxy NGC 2775 lies 10' to the south, and was also detected in the observations. It has a regular disk-like distribution.
Reference: Hogg, D. E., Roberts, M. S., Schulman, E., & Knezek, P. M. 1998, AJ 115, 502.
)


The Arp 31 System
Arp 31
(
Figure 34: The Arp 31 System.
HI: VLA D-array, 56'', contours=(1.4,4.1,12.3,27.3, 61.6)
x 1019 cm-2.
Optical: DSS, FOV=8' x 13'.
Notes: Members of the NGC691 group. See Fig. 158.
Reference: van Moorsel, G. A., 1988, A&A 202, 59.
)


The Arp 5 system
Arp 5
(
Figure 35: The One-Armed Spiral NGC3664.
HI: VLA D-array, 50" x 43" resolution, contours=4
x 1019 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS, FOV=9' x 13'.
Reference: Wilcots, E., & Prescott, M.K., AJ 2001, submitted.
)


The Arp 22 system
Arp 22
(
Figure 36: The Arp 22 System.
HI: VLA C-array, 26" x 18" resolution, contours=1
x 1020 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS, FOV=8' x 9'.
Reference: Phookun, B., Mundy, L. G., Teuben, P., Wainscoat, R. J. 1992, ApJ 400, 516.
)


The UGC 5272 system
UGC 5272
(
Figure 37: The UGC 5272 System.
HI: WSRT, 30'' resolution, contours=1
x 1020 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS, FOV=5.0' x 5.3'.
Reference: Swaters, R. A., 1999, PhD thesis, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, and Swaters, & R.A., van Albada, T.S., van der Hulst, J.M., Sancisi, R., 2001, A&AS submitted.
)


The Arp 78 system
Arp 78
(
Figure 38: The Arp 78 System.
HI: VLA D-array, 54" x 52" resolution, contours=4.4
x 1020 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS, FOV=19' x 16'.
Notes: The two galaxies are at approximately the same redshift.
Reference: Iyer et al., these proceedings, p. 860.
)


The NGC 3471 system
NGC 3471
(
Figure 39: The NGC3471 System.
HI: VLA D-array, 60'' resolution, contours=4
x 1019 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS, FOV=8' x 7'.
Reference: Hameed & Young, these proceedings, p. 857.
)


The Arp 304 system
Arp 304
(
Figure 40: The Arp 304 System.
HI: VLA D-array, 80'' resolution, contours=1
x 1019 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: Palomar 5m Gunn r, FOV=10' x 10'.
Reference: Nordgren, T. E., Chengalur, J. N., Salpeter, E. E., & Terzian, Y. 1997, AJ 114, 913
).


The Arp 206 system
Arp 206
(
Figure 41: The Arp 206 System.
HI: WSRT, 30'' resolution, contours=2
x 1020 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS, FOV=12' x 14'.
Reference: Swaters, R. A., 1999, PhD thesis, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, and Swaters, R.A., van Albada, T.S., van der Hulst, J.M., & Sancisi, R., 2001, A&AS submitted.
)


The Arp 280 system
Arp 280
(
Figure 42: The Arp 280 System.
HI: VLA C+D-array, 23" x 22" resolution, contours=7
x 1019 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS, FOV=11' x 13'.
Notes: Member of the Ursa Major Cluster. See also Fig. 164.
Reference: Clemens, M. S., 1998, Ph.D. Thesis, Cambridge University.
)


The UGC 260 system
UGC 260
(
Figure 43: The UGC 260 System.
HI: VLA D-array, 60'' resolution, contours=4
x 1019 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: WIYN R-band, FOV=7' x 8'.
Reference: Pisano & Wilcots, these proceedings, p. 501.
)


The Arp 83 system
Arp 83
(
Figure 44: The Arp 83 System.
HI: VLA D-array, 71" x 56" resolution, contours=2
x 1019 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: Palomar 5m Gunn r, FOV=7' x 7' (left) 2.9' x 2.7' (right).
Reference: Nordgren, T. E., Chengalur, J. N., Salpeter, E. E., & Terzian, Y. 1997, AJ 114, 77.
)


The Arp 279 system
Arp 279
(
Figure 45: The Arp 279 System.
HI: Solid contours and lower right greyscale: VLA C-array, 25" x 17" resolution, contours=2
x 1020 cm-2 x 2n. Dotted contours: VLA D-array, 71'' resolution, contours=(2, 4, 8) x 1019 cm-2. Optical: MSSSO 40'' R-band, FOV=13' x 12'.
Reference: Clemens, M. S., & Alexander, P. 2001, MNRAS, 321, 103 (C-array data) and Nordgren, T. E., Chengalur, J. N., Salpeter, E. E., & Terzian, Y. 1997, AJ 114, 913 (D-array and optical data).
)


The Arp 84 system
Arp 84
(
Figure 46: The Arp 84 System.
HI: VLA C+D-array, 18.4" x 17.7" resolution, contours=1
x 1020 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS, FOV=8' x 9'.
Reference: Kaufman, M., Brinks, E., Elmegreen, B.G., Elmegreen, D.M., Klaric, M., Struck, C., Thomasson, M., & Vogel, S. 1999, , 118, 1577.
)


The Arp 269 system
Arp 269
(
Figure 47: The Arp 269 System.
HI: VLA C+D-array, 38" x 33" resolution, contours=5
x 1019 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS, FOV=30' x 30'.
Reference: Clemens, M. S., Alexander, P., & Green, D. A. 1998, MNRAS 297, 1015.
)


The NGC 7463 / 7464 / 7465 system
NGC 7463 / 4 / 5
(
Figure 48: The NGC7463/4/5 System.
HI: VLA C-array, 22" x 17", contours=(2.5, 6, 9, 12, 27)
x 1020 cm-2.
Optical: Top two panels: DSS. Bottom: Issac Newton Telescope B-band. FOV=8' x 6'.
Notes: NGC 7463 is also detected in , but this emission is not shown here.
Reference: Thomas et al., these proceedings, p. 224.
)


The Arp 82 system
Arp 82
(
Figure 49: The Arp 82 System.
HI: VLA C+D-array, 16.7" x 16" resolution, contours=2
x 1020 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS, FOV=7' x 7'.
Reference: Kaufman, M., Brinks, E., Elmegreen, D.M., Thomasson, M., Elmegreen, B.G., Struck, C., and Klaric, M. 1997, AJ 114, 2323.
)


The NGC 3893 / 6 system
NGC 3893 / 6
(
Figure 50: The NGC 3893/6 System.
HI: WSRT, 30'' resolution, contours=1
x 1020 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS, FOV=10' x 10'.
Notes: Member of the Ursa Major Cluster. See also Fig. 164.
Reference: Verheijen, M. A. W., & Sancisi, R. 2001, A&A 370, 765.
)


The M51 system
M51
(
Figure 51: M51: The Whirlpool Galaxy.
HI: VLA C+D-array, 34'' resolution, contours=4
x 1019 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS, FOV=24.4' x 27.4'.
Reference: Rots, A. H., Bosma, A., van der Hulst, J. M., Athanassoula, E., & Crane, P. C. 1990, AJ, 100, 387. See also Miller, Bregman & Wakker, these proceedings, p. 533.
)


The Markarian 348
/ NGC 252 / 266 system
Mrk 348
(
Figure 52: The Mrk 348 System.
HI: Left: VLA D-array, 57'' resolution, contours=5
x 1019 cm-2 x 2n. Top right: VLA D-array, 44'' resolution, contours=1 x 1019 cm-2 x 2n. Bottom right: VLA C-array, 13.6" x 12.8" resolution, contours=1 x 1020 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: Left: DSS, FOV=25' x 30'. Right: KPNO 0.9m B-band, FOV=5.1' x 3.7' (top), 5.6' x 5.2' (bottom).
Reference: Simkin S. M., van Gorkom, J. H., Hibbard, J. E., Hong-Jun, S. 1987, Science 235, 1367.
)


The M81 / M82 / NGC 3077 system
M81 / 82 / NGC 3077
(
Figure 53: The M81/M82/NGC3077 System.
HI: VLA D-array, 135" x 125" resolution, contours=3
x 1019 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS. FOV=170' x 140' (M81), 18' x 17' (NGC3077), 21' x 21' (M82).
Reference: Yun, M. S., Ho, P. T. P., & Lo, K. Y. 1994, Nature 372, 530.
)


The Arp 281 system
Arp 281
(
Figure 54: The Arp 281 System.
HI: WSRT, 87" x 45" resolution, contours=2
x 1019 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS, FOV=42.6' x 41.5' (top).
Reference: Rand, R. J., & van der Hulst, J. M. 1993, AJ 105, 2098.
)


The Arp 18 system
Arp 18
(
Figure 55: The Arp 18 System.
HI: WSRT, 30'' resolution, contours=2
x 1020 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS, FOV=13' x 20'.
Notes: Member of the Ursa Major Cluster. See also Fig. 164.
Reference: Verheijen, M. A. W., & Sancisi, R. 2001, A&A 370, 765.
)


The NGC 1511 system
NGC 1511
(
Figure 56: The NGC1511 System.
HI: ATCA 1.5 km configuration, 42'' resolution, contours=5
x 1019 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: MSSSO 40'' R-band, FOV=15' x 15'.
Reference: Nordgren, T. E., Chengalur, J. N., Salpeter, E. E., & Terzian, Y. 1997, AJ 114, 913
)


The NGC 1097 system
NGC 1097
(
Figure 57: The NGC1097 System.
HI
: VLA DnC-array, 56'' resolution, contours=3
x 1019 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical
: DSS, FOV=17.8' x 17.2'.
Reference
: Higdon & Wallin, these proceedings, p. 859
)

The NGC 1097 (even though modest in appearance under close HI imaging) actually, as we will see, has a large cohort of apparently ejected anomalous redshift compact objects, including.....

The NGC 2708 / 09 system
NGC 2708 / 09
(
Figure 58: The NGC2708/9 System.
HI: VLA D-array, 78'' resolution, contours=2
x 1019 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: WIYN B-band, FOV=8.3' x 15.8'.
Reference: Pisano & Wilcots, these proceedings, p. 501.
)


The Arp 217 / NGC 3310 system
Arp 217 / NGC 3310
(
Figure 59: The NGC 3310 System.
HI: WSRT. Upper right panel: 20'' resolution, contours=2
x 1020 cm-2 x 2n. Lower panels: 60'' resolution, contours=2 x 1019 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS, FOV=3.2' x 8.0' (top), 15.2' x 17.1' (bottom left).
Reference: Kregel, M. & Sancisi, R. 2001, A&A in press.
)


The Arp 215 / NGC 2782 system
Arp 215 / NGC 2782
(
Figure 60: The NGC 2782 System.
HI: VLA B+C+D-array, 9.4" x 8.7" resolution, contours=4
x 1020 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: WYIN B-band, FOV=6.4' x 6.2' (top).
References: Smith, B. J. 1994, AJ, 107, 1695 (data) and Jogee, S., Kenney, J. D. P., & Smith, B. J. 1998, ApJ 494, L185 (Optical data).
)


The NGC 2146 system
NGC 2146
(
Figure 61: The NGC2146 System.
HI: Combined VLA D-array plus NRAO 300' observations, 77" x 49" resolution, contours=3
x 1018 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS, FOV=16' x 16'.
Notes: The redshift of the nearby galaxy NGC2146A lies outside of the passband of the observations.
Reference: Taramopoulos, A., Payne, H., & Briggs, F. H. 2001, A&A, 365, 360.
)


The NGC 5713 / 5719 system
NGC 5713 / 19
(
Figure 62: The NGC 5713/5719 System.
HI: VLA C-array, 30'' resolution, contours=1
x 1020 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS, FOV=26' x 14'.
Reference: Langston & Teuben, these proceedings, p. 861.
)


The Arp 284 system
Arp 284
(
Figure 63: The NGC 7714/15 System.
HI: VLA B+C+D-array, 11" x 8.5" resolution, contours=2
x 1020 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS, FOV=6' x 3'.
Reference: Smith, B.J. 1991, ApJ, 393, 544 and Smith, B.J., Struck, C., & Pogge, R.W. 1997, ApJ 483, 754.
)


The Arp 245 system
Arp 245
(
Figure 64: The Arp 245 System.
HI: VLA CS-array, 25'' resolution, contours=1.1
x 1020 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: Top: NTT+CFHT V-band. Bottom left: DSS. FOV=8' x 8'.
Reference: Duc, P. -A., Brinks, E., Springel, V., Pichardo, B., Weilbacher, P., & Mirabel, I.F., 2000, AJ 120, 1238.
)


The Arp 244 system
Arp 244
(
Figure 65: The Toomre Sequence merger NGC4038/9.
HI: VLA C+D-array, 40'' resolution, contours=4
x 1019 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS, FOV=17.2' x 23.7'.
Notes: The concentration at the end of the southern tail is associated with a putative Tidal Dwarf Galaxy. For a close-up of the companion galaxy ESO 572-G045 see Fig. 22.
Reference: Hibbard, J.E., van der Hulst, J. M., Barnes, J. E., & Rich, R. M. 2001, AJ in press.
)


The Arp 242 system
Arp 242
(
Figure 66: The Toomre Sequence merger NGC4676.
HI: VLA C+D-array, 12'' resolution, contours=1
x 1020 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: KPNO 2.1m B-band, FOV=3' x 5'.
Notes: There is an detected companion lying 12.8' to the south (NGC4676S) with no optical counterpart visible on the DSS.
Reference: Hibbard, J. E. & van Gorkom, J. H. 1996, AJ 111, 655.
)


The Arp 263 system
Arp 263
(
Figure 67: The Arp 263 System.
HI: VLA D-array, 64.3" x 54.6" resolution, contours=5
x 1018 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS, FOV=15' x 14'.
Notes: The galaxies marked in parenthesis have redshifts which place them in the background. CGCG 094-040 has no known redshift.
Reference: Iyer et al., these proceedings, p. 860.
)


The NGC 1487 system
NGC 1487
(
Figure 68: The NGC1487 System.
HI: ATCA, 17'' resolution, contours=2
x 1020 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS, FOV=8.4' x 4.6'.
Reference: English & Freeman, these proceedings, p. 857.
)


The Arp 243 / NGC 2623 system
Arp 243
(
Figure 69: The IR luminous Toomre Sequence merger NGC 2623.
HI: VLA C+D-array. Middle panel: 16'' resolution, contours=4
x 1019 cm-2 x 2n. Bottom panel: 21'' resolution, contours=3 x 1019 cm-2 x 2n. Optical: Top and middle panels: UH 88'' R-band, FOV=4.5' x 3.2'. Bottom panel: DSS, FOV=6' x 12'.
Reference: Hibbard, J.E., & Yun, M. S. 1996, in Cold Gas at High Redshift, eds. M. Bremer, H. Rottgering, P. van der Werf, & C. L. Carilli (Dordrecht: Kluwer), 47.
)


The NGC 3256 system
NGC 3256
(
Figure 70: The Toomre Sequence merger NGC3256.
HI: ATCA, 22.6'' resolution, contours=(2.2, 3.2, 4.3, 22, 43)
x 1019 cm-2.
Optical: Top panel: UH 88'' R-band. Bottom panel: DSS, FOV=9' x 7'.
Notes: The nearby galaxies NGC 3256C, NGC 3262 and NGC 3263 were also detected in as part of these observations.
Reference: English, J., Norris, R. P., Freeman, K. C., & Booth, R. S. 2001, AJ in press.
)


The Arp 193 system
Arp 193
(
Figure 71: The IR luminous merger Arp 193.
HI: VLA C+D-array, 17" x 16" resolution, contours=2
x 1019 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: UH 88'' B-band, FOV=4.1' x 3.7'.
Reference: Hibbard, J.E., & Yun, M. S. 1996, in Cold Gas at High Redshift, eds. M. Bremer, H. Rottgering, P. van der Werf, & C. L. Carilli (Dordrecht: Kluwer), 47.
)


The Arp 226 system

Arp
                  226
(
Figure 72: The Toomre Sequence merger NGC7252.
HI: VLA C+D-array, 27" x 16" resolution, contours=4
x 1019 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS, FOV=17.8' x 13.2' (top panels) and CTIO 4m R-band, FOV= 9.3' x 6.0' (bottom panels).
Notes: The bright clump in the northwest tail is associated with a putative Tidal Dwarf Galaxy.
Reference: Hibbard, J.E., Guhathakurta, P., van Gorkom, J. H., & Schweizer, F. 1994, AJ 107, 67.
)


The LMC, SMC, and Megallanic Stream
LMC, SMC, & Magellanic
                  Stream
(
Figure 73: The Large and Small Magellanic Clouds and the Magellanic Stream.
HI: Parkes Multibeam All-Sky Survey (see Stavely-Smith et al., these proceedings, p. 427), 15.5' resolution, contours=1
x 1019 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: Image from the color imaging team at Mt. Stromlo Observatory (see Bessell, M. 2000, PASA 17, 179).
Reference: Putman, M.E., et al., 1998, Nature, 394, 752.
)


The NGC 7769 / 7771 system
NGC 7769 / 7771
(
Figure 74: The NGC 7769/7771 System.
HI: VLA D-array, 67" x 52" resolution, contours=1
x 1019 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: Top panels: Palomar 5m Gunn r, FOV=10.9' x 8.0'. Bottom left panel: DSS, FOV=20' x 21'.
Reference: Nordgren, T. E., Chengalur, J. N., Salpeter, E. E., & Terzian, Y. 1997, AJ 114, 77.
)


The Arp 270 system
Arp 270
(
Figure 75: The Arp 270 System.
HI: VLA C+D-array, 21'' resolution, contours=1
x 1020 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS, FOV=6' x 4' (top), 16' x 19' (bottom).
Reference: Clemens, M. S., Baxter, K. M., Alexander, P., & Green, D. A. 1999, MNRAS, 308, 364. See also Clemens, Winter, & Alexander, these proceedings, p. 208.
)


The NGC 6670A / B system
NGC 6670A/B
(
Figure 76: The IR Luminous Merger NGC 6670.
HI: VLA C-array, 21" x 17" resolution, contours=1
x 1020 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS, FOV=8' x 4'.
Reference: Wang, W.-H., Lo, K. Y., Gao, Y., & Gruendl, R. A. 2001, AJ 121, 140.
)


The Arp 299 system
Arp 299
(
Figure 77: The IR luminous merger Arp 299.
HI: VLA C+D-array. Lower left: 21'' resolution, contours=4
x 1019 cm-2 x 2n. Lower right: 35'' resolution. Optical: UH 88'' B-band, FOV=7' x 12'.
Notes: There is a small detected companion 10' to the west of Arp 299.
Reference: Hibbard, J. E., & Yun, M. S. 1999, AJ 118, 162.
)


The Arp 186 system
NGC 1614
(
Figure 78: The IR luminous merger NGC1614.
HI: VLA C+D-array, 19'' resolution, contours=4
x 1019 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: UH 88'' B-band, FOV=5.2' x 4.8' (top), 2.0' x 2.3' (bottom left).
Reference: Hibbard, J.E., & Yun, M. S. 1996, in Cold Gas at High Redshift, eds. M. Bremer, H. Rottgering, P. van der Werf, & C. L. Carilli (Dordrecht: Kluwer), 47.
)


The NGC 3958 / 3963 system
NGC 3958 / 3963
(
Figure 79: The NGC3958/3963 System.
HI: WSRT, 60'' resolution, contours=2
x 1019 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: Palomar 5m Gunn r, FOV=11.6' x 13.4'.
Reference: Nordgren, T. E., Chengalur, J. N., Salpeter, E. E., & Terzian, Y. 1997, AJ 114, 77.
)


The UGC 6962 / 6973 system
UGC 6962 / 6973
(
Figure 80: The UGC 6962/6973 System.
HI: WSRT, 30'' resolution, contours=1
x 1020 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS, FOV=9' x 7'.
Notes: Member of the Ursa Major Cluster. See also Fig. 164.
Reference: Verheijen, M. A. W., & Sancisi, R. 2001, A&A 370, 765.
)


The NGC 3424 / 3430 system
NGC 3424 / 3430
(
Figure 81: The NGC 3424/3430 System.
HI: VLA D-array, 83'' resolution, contours=1
x 1019 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS, FOV=30' x 27'.
Notes: NGC 3413 is a foreground object.
Reference: Nordgren, T. E., Chengalur, J. N., Salpeter, E. E., & Terzian, Y. 1997, AJ 114, 77.
)


The NGC 5774 / 5 system
NGC 5774 / 5
(
Figure 82: The NGC5774/5 System.
HI: VLA CnB-array, 29" x 23" resolution, contours=1
x 1020 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS, FOV=11' x 10'.
Reference: Irwin, J. A. 1994, ApJ 429, 618.
)


The NGC 672 / IC 1727 system
NGC 672 / IC 1727
(
Figure 83: The NGC672/IC1727 System.
HI: VLA C-array, 18.5" x 16.6" resolution, contours=1
x 1020 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS, FOV=19.7' x 19.1'.
Reference: Prescott & Wilcots, these proceedings, p. 863.
)


The NGC 2207 / IC 2163 system
NGC 2207 / IC 2163
(
Figure 84: The NGC2207/IC2163 System.
HI: VLA BnC-array, 13.5" x 12" resolution, contours=3
x 1020 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS, FOV=7.1' x 7.1'.
Reference: Elmegreen, D.M., Kaufman, M., Brinks, E., Elmegreen, B.G., & Sundin, M. 1995, ApJ 453, 100.
)


The Arp 271 system
Arp 271
(
Figure 85: The Arp 271 System.
HI: VLA C+D-array, 35" x 27" resolution, contours=4
x 1019 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS, FOV=15.6' x 11.0'.
Notes: The Arp 271 companion is associated with a cataloged APMUKS object (B140004.67-054920.9). The LCRS object has redshift only 10 km s
-1 different from Arp 271.
Reference: Clemens, M. S., 1998, Ph.D. Thesis, Cambridge University.
)


The Arp 298 system
Arp 298
(
Figure 86: The Arp 298 System.
HI: VLA C-array, 20" x 18" resolution, contours=4
x 1019 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS, FOV=5' x 5'.
Reference: Mundell, these proceedings, p. 411
)


The UGC 12914 / 5 system
UGC 12914 / 5
(
Figure 87: The UGC 12914/5 System.
HI: VLA C-array, 18'' resolution, contours=1
x 1020 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS, FOV=4.7' x 4.6'.
Reference: Condon, J. J., Helou, G., Sanders, D. B., & Soifer, B. T. 1993, AJ 105, 1730.
)


The ESO 343 / G014 / 7 system
ESO 343 / G014 / 7
(
Figure 88: The ESO 353-G014/7 System.
HI: ATCA 1.5 km configuration, 41'' resolution, contours=5
x 1019 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: MSSSO 40'' R-band, FOV=5' x 8'.
Reference: Nordgren, T. E., Chengalur, J. N., Salpeter, E. E., & Terzian, Y. 1997, AJ 114, 913
)


The NGC 7125 / 6 system
NGC 7125 / 6
(
Figure 89: The NGC7125/6 System.
HI: ATCA 1.5 km configuration, 57'' resolution, contours=4
x 1019 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: MSSSO 40'' R-band, FOV=15' x 15'.
Reference: Nordgren, T. E., Chengalur, J. N., Salpeter, E. E., & Terzian, Y. 1997, AJ 114, 913
)


The VV 785 system
VV 785
(
Figure 90: The Cartwheel Ring Galaxy System.
HI: VLA BnA+CnB+DnC-array. Contours: 29.6" x 20.8" resolution, levels 5
x 1019 cm-2 x 2n. Greyscale: 8.1" x 6.9" resolution.
Optical: DSS, FOV=3.6' x 5.2'.
Reference: Higdon, J.L., 1996, ApJ 467, 241.
)


The II Zw 70 / 71 system
II Zw 70 / 71
(
Figure 91: The Polar Ring Galaxy System VV 324 (II Zw 70/71).
HI: VLA C+D-array, 22.5" x 20" resolution.
Optical: Top two panels: DSS, FOV=6.5' x 4.6'. Bottom panel: B-band image from OSU Imaging Fabry-Pérot
Spectrometer.
Reference: Cox, A.L., Sparke, L.S., Watson, A.M., & van Moorsel, G., 2001, AJ 121, 692.
)


Morphologically similar or somewhat comparable to VV324 (UGC 9560 / UGC 9562) in the radio wavelengths is the directional / asymmetric streaming activity from ESO 137-001 in both visible (Hubble Space Telescope) and in X-ray (Chandra) wavelengths (below).



Above: Streamers of star-formation activity emerging from the galaxy as a "jelly-fish galaxy" (visible light, Hubble);
Below: visible and X-ray illuminated star forming streamers and hot gases (visible and X-ray composite; Hubble & Chandra), forming a kind of wide jet.



The ESO 138-IG029 / ESO 138-IG030 system
ESO 138-IG029 / ESO
                  138-IG030
(
Figure 92: The "Sacred Mushroom'' Ring Galaxy System.
HI: ATCA, 21.5" x 20.3" resolution, contours=5
x 1019 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS, FOV=5' x 5'.
Reference: Higdon et al., these proceedings, p. 860.
)


The VII Zw 466 system
VII Zw 466
(
Figure 93: The Ring Galaxy System VII Zw 466.
HI: VLA C-array, 23" x 22" resolution, contours=3
x 1019 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS, FOV=5.8' x 4.9'.
Reference: Appleton, P. N., Charmandaris, V., & Struck, C. 1996, ApJ 468, 532.
)


The Arp 10 system
Arp 10
(
Figure 94: The Ring(ed) Galaxy System Arp 10.
HI: VLA C-array, 21'' resolution, contours=4
x 1019 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS, FOV= 3.0' x 3.0' (top), 4,4' x 8.6' (bottom).
Reference: Charmandaris, V., & Appleton, P.N., 1996, ApJ 460, 686.
)


The AM 1354-250 system

(
Figure 95: The Ring Galaxy System AM 1354-250.
HI: VLA CnB+DnC-array, 25" x 18" resolution, contours=1 x 1020 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS, FOV=3.7' x 3.7'.
Reference: Higdon et al., these proceedings, p. 859.
)


The Arp 147 system

(
Figure 96: The Ring Galaxy System Arp 147.
HI: VLA B-array, 6.5" x 6" resolution, contours=
3 x 1020 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS, FOV=1.4' x 1.4'.
Reference: Higdon et al., these proceedings, p. 859.
)


The Lindsay-Shapley Ring (VV 785) system

(
Figure 97: The Lindsay-Shapley Ring.
HI: ATCA, 12.2" x 9.4" resolution, contours=2
x 1020 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS, FOV=3.6' x 4.3'.
Reference: Higdon et al., these proceedings, p. 859.
)


The NGC 2292 / 3 system

Figure 98: The NGC 2292/3 system.
HI: VLA D-array, 40" x 33" resolution, contours=
5 x 1019 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS, FOV=9.4' x 7.4' and 19' x 22'.
Notes: No was detected from NGC 2295 or ESO 490-GO42, even though they have velocities within the range of the \ observations.
Reference: Rupen, Hibbard & Bunker, these proceedings, p. 863.


The NGC 5506 / 7 system

(
Figure 99: The NGC5506/7 System.
HI: VLA C-array, 21.6" x 19.8" resolution, contours=
4 x 1019 cm-2 x 2n. Optical: DSS, FOV=18' x 16'.
Notes: A lower resolution map of this system showing more widely distributed gas is shown in Fig. 151.
Reference: Mundell, these proceedings, p. 411.
)


The Arp 102 system

Figure 100: The Arp 102 System.
HI: VLA D-array, 52'' resolution, contours=
(1,2,3,4,5,6,8,10,12,14,16) x 1019 cm-2.
Optical: DSS, FOV=10' x 12'.
Reference: Higdon et al., these proceedings, p. 859
.


The Arp 104 system

Figure 101: The Arp 104 System.
HI: VLA D-array, 52'' resolution, contours=
(1,2,3,4,5,6,8,10,12,14,16) x 1019 cm-2.
Optical: DSS, FOV=11' x 12'.
Reference: Higdon et al., these proceedings, p. 859.


The Arp 105 system

Figure 102: The Arp 105 System.
HI: VLA C+D-array, 23" x 21" resolution, contours=
4.4 x 1019 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: CFHT 4m V-band, FOV=4' x 6'.
Notes: In the cluster Abell 1185.
Reference: Duc, P. -A., Brinks, E., Wink, J. E., & Mirabel, I. F. 1997, A&A 326, 537.


The Arp 143 system

Figure 103:
The Ring Galaxy NGC2444/5.
HI: VLA C+D-array, 28'' resolution, contours=
4 x 1019 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: KPNO 0.9m B-band, FOV=13' x 17'.
Reference: Appleton, P. N., Ghigo, F. D, van Gorkom, J. H., Schombert, J. M., & Struck-Marcell, C. 1987, Nature 330, 140.

Arp 143 (= NGC2444/5 = UGC 4016) is a complex system of galactic interactions the imagery of which Hibbard provides a devoted link: https://www.cv.nrao.edu/~jhibbard/a143/a143.html (also referenced in Appleton, P. N. & Struck-Marcell, C. 1996. Collisional ring galaxies. Fundamentals of Cosmic Physics 16, 111-220. https://ned.ipac.caltech.edu/level5/Sept01/Appleton/frames.html). In light of data discussed here and in other chapters, these images may be considered as to their significance in evaluating cosmological and cosmogonical models.


Entry image in Arp's Atlas of Peculiar Galaxies (1966): https://ned.ipac.caltech.edu/level5/Arp/Figures/big_arp143.jpeg.

True color RGB of B+V+R passband filters:


RGB false color image with green = optical and blue = HI radio:



Left: True color smoothed in the blue violet red (BVR) photometric system of optical filters; Right (above): B & W smoothed image.

HI contours stacked on top of the B+V+R passband filtered image:

Tail detail
:

The radio data represented in the images were obtained at the VLA by Appleton, P., Ghigo, F., van Gorkom, J. et al. 1987. A giant intergalactic H I bubble near Arp l43. Nature 330, 140-142. https://doi.org/10.1038/330140a0, including a later erratum: https://www.nature.com/articles/330500a0. The NED database entry contains the data on 11 objects within the Arp 143 entry angular location, including their redshifts, whether considered to be close enough to be associated: https://ned.ipac.caltech.edu/cgi-bin/nph-objsearch?objname=Arp+143. The erratum-linked imagery and the NED entry summary data:







The Arp 94 system

Figure 104:
The Arp 94 System.
HI: VLA D-array, 80" x 47" resolution, contours=1
x 1019 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS, FOV=8' x 11' (left) and 10' x 27' (right).
Reference: Mundell, these proceedings, p. 411.


The Mrk 273 system

Figure 105:
The IR luminous merger Mrk 273.
HI: VLA CnB-array, 16" x 14.3" resolution, contours=
1 x 1020 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical
: Lower Right: DSS, FOV=16' x 19'. Other: UH 88'' R-band, FOV=2.5' x 2.8'.
Notes: was also detected in UGC8707 and the companion to the north.
Reference: Hibbard, J.E., & Yun, M. S. 1996, in Cold Gas at High Redshift, eds. M. Bremer, H. Rottgering, P. van der Werf, & C. L. Carilli (Dordrecht: Kluwer), 47.


The Arp 224 / NGC 3921 system

Figure 106: The Toomre Sequence merger NGC3921.
HI: VLA C+D-array, 20'' resolution, contours=3
x 1019 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: KPNO 2.1m R-band, FOV=7' x 9' (top), 4' x 5' (bottom).
Notes: MCG+09-19-213 falls on the edge of the passband of the observations, so is not completely mapped in HI.
Reference: Hibbard, J. E., & van Gorkom, J. H. 1996, AJ 111, 655.


The Arp 236 = VV 114 system

Figure 107: The IR luminous merger VV 114.
HI: VLA C+D-array, 21" x 17" resolution, contours=
8 x 1019 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: UH 88'' R-band, FOV=4' x 3' (top), 10' x 8' (bottom).
Notes: Both IC1622 and ESO 541-G021 fall at the edge of the passband of the observations, so are not completely mapped in HI.
Reference: Hibbard, J.E., & Yun, M. S. 1996, in Cold Gas at High Redshift, eds. M. Bremer, H. Rottgering, P. van der Werf, & C. L. Carilli (Dordrecht: Kluwer), 47.


The Arp 158 system

Figure 108:
The Arp 158 System.
HI: VLA D-array, 56" x 48" resolution, contours=
5 x 1018 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS, FOV=8' x 8'.
Reference: Iyer et al., these proceedings, p. 860.


The NGC 6240 system

Figure 109:
The IR luminous merger NGC 6240.
HI: VLA C+D-array, 25'' resolution, contours=
5 x 1019 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS, FOV=5' x 6'.
Notes: The companion to the south has no cataloged counterpart.
Reference: Yun & Hibbard, these proceedings, p. 866.


The NGC 520 system

Figure 110: The Toomre Sequence merger NGC520.
HI: VLA C+D-array, 24'' resolution, contours=3
x 1019 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: KPNO 0.9m V-band, FOV=16' x 20'.
Notes: The nearby dwarf UGC957 is found to be fully entrained within the extended ring.
Reference: Hibbard, J. E., & van Gorkom, J. H. 1996, AJ 111, 655.


The Arp 220 system

Figure 111: The IR luminous merger Arp 220.
HI: VLA C+D-array. Upper right: 30'' resolution, contours=2
x 1019 cm-2 x 2n. Lower left: 20'' resolution, contours=5 x 1019 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: Upper panels: UH 88'' R-band, FOV=7' x 6'. Lower panels: DSS, FOV=16' x 10' (right) 3' x 3' (left).
Notes: The dotted boxes in the lower right panel delineate the regions shown in the other panels. IC 4554 is at a higher redshift than Arp 220, so presumably a background galaxy. The companion to the northeast has no cataloged counterpart.
Reference: Yun & Hibbard, these proceedings p. 866. See also Hibbard, J. E., Vacca, W. D., & Yun, M. S. 2000, AJ 119, 1130.

The Arp 220 system is one with documented and connected higher z objects with a lower z active galaxy. Note the careful wording in the description. Hibbard also compiled a page with papers on Arp 220: https://www.cv.nrao.edu/~jhibbard/a220/. Another paper to which Hibbard contributed: Ohyama, Y. et al. 1999. The redshifts of galaxies around Arp 220 and the serendipitous discovery of three star-forming dwarf galaxies at z ~ 0.5. (arXiv: https://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/9903146). AJ 117 (6), 2617. https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1086/300903; cf. Hibbard's page on Arp 220: https://www.cv.nrao.edu/~jhibbard/a220/a220redshifts.html, show an alignment of these star-forming dwarf galaxies with higher redshift than the main galaxy in the Arp 220 system. Given paradigmatic HBBC assumptions, the authors consider the higher redshift objects to be background a priori.




These following dwarf galaxies have high redshifts of z ~ 0.5, well above the redshifts of other galaxies in the Arp 220 system. They appear like they are are in a line from the Arp 220 AGN, suggesting again ejection of high redshift objects from AGNs, as predicted in the Ambartsumian Vorontsev-Vel'yamino Arp (AV-VA) cosmogony (cf. references and discussions in chapters VI, VII, this chapter, IX, X, and XII).


What is fascinating about this system is the alignment of the dwarf galaxies with the AGN of Arp 220, a circumstance which we are supposed to believe is a chance or serendipitous juxtaposition. Galaxies I, II, III (ranked by brightness) are examples of a class of faint blue galaxies, such as have been found in deep sky field observations before.







Arp 220 visible light in greyscale with radio isophote contours:

As might be expected, the radio contours suggest continuity within the Arp 220 system (https://www.cv.nrao.edu/~jhibbard/a220/a220swcomp.gif).

The NGC 7135 system

(
Figure 112: The NGC7135 System.
HI: VLA C+D-array, 60.4" x 43.2" resolution, contours=2
x 1019 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS, FOV=16' x 16'.
Reference: Schiminovich et al., these proceedings, p. 863.
)


The NGC 5018 system

(
Figure 113: The NGC5018 System.
HI: VLA D-array, 60'' resolution, contours=3
x 1019 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS, FOV=28' x 26'.
Reference: Kim, D. -W., Guhathakurta, P., van Gorkom, J. H., Jura, M., & Knapp, G. R. 1988, ApJ 330, 684.
)


The Arp 227 system

(
Figure 114: The Arp 227 Shell System.
HI: VLA D-array, 49" x 46" resolution, contours=1
x 1019 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS, FOV=17' x 20'.
Notes: The lower right panel shows an expanded field of view, showing an detected companion to the south. The dotted box shows the region imaged in the other three panels.
Reference: Schiminovich et al., these proceedings, p. 863.
)


The Fornax A system

(
Figure 115: The Fornax A System.
HI: VLA DnC-array, 53.7" x 42.6" resolution, contours=2
x 1019 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS, FOV=33' x 27'.
Reference: Horellou, C., Black, J. H., van Gorkom, J. H., Combes, F., van der Hulst, J. M., & Charmandaris, V. 2001, A&A submitted.
)


The NGC 4125 system

(
Figure 116: The Peculiar Elliptical NGC 4125.
HI: VLA D-array, 160" x 40" resolution, contours=
2 x 1019 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS, FOV=7.3' x 6.9'.
Reference: Rupen, Hibbard & Bunker, these proceedings, p. 863.
)


The NGC 7619 / 7626 system

(
Figure 117: The NGC 7619/7626 System.
HI: VLA D-array, 54" x 50" resolution, contours=1
x 1019 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS, FOV=17' x 10'.
Notes: The central galaxies of the Pegasus I group in the Pegasus Cluster—see also Fig. 166.
Reference: Observations centered on NGC7626: Hibbard & Sansom, these proceedings, p. 858. Observations centered on NGC7617: Schiminovich et al., these proceedings, p. 863.
)


The M86 region system

(
Figure 118: The M86 Region.
HI: VLA D-array, 58" x 48" resolution, contours=2
x 1019 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS, FOV=27' x 23'.
Notes: Member of the Virgo cluster. See also Fig. 167.
Reference: Li & van Gorkom, these proceedings, p. 637.
)


The M85 system

(
Figure 119: The M85 System.
HI: VLA D-array, 54" x 50" resolution, contours=3
x 1019 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS, FOV=22' x 18'.
Reference: Hibbard & Sansom, these proceedings, p. 858.
)


The HI radio-silent Ellipticals

(
Figure 120: Peculiar Early Types Undetected in Radio.
HI: upper limits are in the range of a few
107. See Sansom, A.E., Hibbard, J.E., & Schweizer, F., 2001, AJ 120, 1946.
Optical: DSS. Notes: For each system, the value of the Fine Structure Index (FSI), a quantitative measure of optical morphological peculiarity, is listed. See Schweizer, F., & Seitzer, P. 1992, AJ 104, 1039.
Reference: NGC3610, NGC3640 and NGC5322: Hibbard & Sansom, these proceedings, p. 858. NGC596, NGC7585 and NGC7600: Schiminovich et al., these proceedings, p. 863.
)


The NGC 678 / 680 system

(
Figure 121: The NGC 678/680 System.
HI: VLA D-array, 56'', contours=(1.4, 4.1, 12.3, 27.3, 61.6) x
1019 cm-2.
Optical: DSS, FOV=15' x 11'.
Notes: Members of the NGC691 group. See Fig. 158.
Reference: van Moorsel, G. A., 1988, A&A 202, 59.
)


The Mrk 315 system

(
Figure 122: Mrk 315.
HI: VLA C-array, 15.6" x 14.7" resolution, contours=1
x 1020 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS, FOV=3' x 3'.
Reference: Simkin, these proceedings, p. 408.
)


The NGC 2534 system

(
Figure 123: The Peculiar Elliptical NGC 2534.
HI: VLA D-array, 67" x 51" resolution, contours=2
x 1019 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS, FOV=6' x 6'.
Reference: Schiminovich et al., these proceedings, p. 863.
)


The NGC 1210 system

(
Figure 124: The Shell Galaxy NGC 1210.
HI: VLA C+D-array, 52" x 36" resolution, contours=4
x 1019 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: Left: DSS. Upper right: deep optical image from David Malin. FOV=7.0 x 5.7'.
Reference: Schiminovich et al., these proceedings, p. 863.
)


The Arp 155 system

(
Figure 125: The Shell Galaxy NGC 3656.
HI: VLA C+D-array, 25.2" x 19.7" resolution, contours=2
x 1019 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS, FOV=5' x 4'.
Notes: Part of the NGC3656 field—see Fig. 161.
Reference: Balcells, M., van Gorkom, J.H., Sancisi, R., & del Burgo, C. 2001, AJ in press.
)


The NGC 2865 system

(
Figure 126: The Shell Galaxy NGC 2865.
HI: VLA B+C-array, 20'' resolution, contours=3
x 1019 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS, FOV=10' x 12'.
Reference: Schiminovich, D., van Gorkom, J. H., van der Hulst, J. M., & Malin, D. F. 1995, ApJ 444, L77. See also Schiminovich, these proceedings, p. 147.
)


The Arp 153 / Centaurus A systm

(
Figure 127: The Centaurus A System.
HI: VLA D-array, 78" x 41" resolution, contours=4
x 1019 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS, FOV=30' x 30'.
Reference: Schiminovich, D., van Gorkom, J. H., van der Hulst, J. M., & Kasow, S. 1994, ApJ 423, L101.
)


The Arp 230 system

(
Figure 128: The Shell Galaxy Arp 230.
HI: VLA B+C-array, 15'' resolution, contours=1
x 1020 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS, FOV=5' x 5'.
Reference: Schiminovich, D., van Gorkom, J.H., & van der Hulst, J.M., 2001, AJ submitted. See also Schiminovich, these proceedings, p. 147.
)


The MCG-05-07-001

(
Figure 129: The Polar Ring Galaxy MCG-05-07-001.
HI: VLA B+C-array, 32.1" x 15.2" resolution, contours=
4 x 1019 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS, FOV=6' x 6'.
Reference: Schiminovich, D., van Gorkom, J.H., & van der Hulst, J.M., 2001, AJ submitted. See also Schiminovich, these proceedings, p. 147.
)


The UGC 7576 system

(
Figure 130: The Polar Ring Galaxy UGC 7576.
HI: VLA C-array, 10'' resolution.
Optical: Top: DSS. Bottom: WIYN V-band image, FOV=1.8' x 1.3'.
Reference: Cox, A.L., & Sparke, L.S. 1996, ASP Conf.\ Ser. 106, The Minnesota Lectures on Extragalactic Neutral Hydrogen, ed. E.D. Skillman (ASP, SF), 168.
)


The IC 2006 system

(
Figure 131: The IC2006 System.
HI: VLA D-array, 40'' resolution, contours=1
x 1019 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS, FOV=13' x 13'.
Reference: Franx, M., van Gorkom, J. H., & de Zeeuw, P. T. 1994, ApJ, 436, 642 and Schweizer, F., van Gorkom, J. H., & Seitzer, P. 1989, ApJ 338, 770.
)


The NGC 2810 system

(
Figure 132: The NGC 2810 System.
HI: VLA D-array, 64.4" x 48.5" resolution, contours=1
x 1019 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS, FOV=6' x 7' (top), 19' x 23' (bottom).
Reference: Schiminovich et al., these proceedings, p. 863.
)


The NGC 2768 system

(
Figure 133: The NGC 2768 System.
HI: VLA D-array, 58" x 50" resolution, contours=2
x 1019 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS, FOV=19' x 15'.
Reference: Schiminovich et al., these proceedings, p. 863.
)


The NGC 4026 system

(
Figure 134: The NGC4026 System.
HI: VLA D-array, 45'' resolution, contours=
2 x 1019 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS, FOV=38' x 38'.
Notes: One of the three brightest lenticulars in the Ursa Major cluster, all of which show disturbed HI.
Reference: Verheijen & Zwaan, these proceedings, p. 866.
)


The NGC 3998 system

(
Figure 135: The NGC 3998 System.
HI: VLA D-array, 45'' resolution, contours=
2 x 1019 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS, FOV=15' x 15' (top), 40' x 37'  (bottom).
Notes: One of the three brightest lenticulars in the Ursa Major cluster, all of which show disturbed HI. See Fig. 12 for a higher-resolution image of NGC3982.
Reference: Verheijen & Zwaan, these proceedings, p. 866.
)


The NGC 1052

(
Figure 136: The NGC1052 System.
HI: VLA D-array, 60" x 60" resolution, contour levels =
(1.5, 6.0, 10.7, 18.3, 27.5, 36.5) x 1019 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS, FOV=14' x 14' (top), 31' x 28' (bottom).
Reference: van Gorkom, J. H., Knapp, G. R., Raimond, E., Faber, S. M., Gallagher, J. S. 1986, AJ 91, 791.
)


The Arp 135 system

(
Figure 137: The NGC 1023 System.
HI: VLA D-array, 54.5" x 46.7" resolution, contours=
5 x 1018 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS, FOV=26' x 30'.
Reference: Iyer et al., these proceedings, p. 860.
)


The NGC 4111

(
Figure 138: The NGC4111 System.
HI: VLA D-array, 45'' resolution, contours=2
x 1019 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS, FOV=15' x 16' (top), 38' x 39' (bottom).
Notes: One of the three brightest lenticulars in the Ursa Major cluster, all of which show disturbed HI.
Reference: Verheijen & Zwaan, these proceedings, p. 866.
)


The NGC 7426 system

(
Figure 139: The NGC7426 System.
HI: VLA D-array, 53" x 49" resolution, contours=1
x 1019 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS, FOV=27' x 24'.
Reference: Schiminovich et al., these proceedings, p. 863.
)


The NGC 5903 system

(
Figure 140: The NGC 5903 System.
HI: VLA DnC-array, 46" x 45" resolution, contoured at
(0.4, 1.2, 1.7, 2.3, 2.9, 3.5, 4.1, 4.7, 5.2) x 1020 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS, FOV=12 x 22'.
Notes: ESO 512-G003 does not have a known redshift.
Reference: Appleton, P. N., Pedlar, A., & Wilkinson, A. 1990, ApJ 357, 426.
)


The Leo Ring system

(
Figure 141: The Leo Ring System.
HI: Arecibo single dish map, 3.3' resolution, contours=2
x 1018 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS, FOV=70' x 100'.
Notes: Labeled galaxies have redshifts similar to the ring.
Reference: Schneider, S.E., Skrutskie, M.F., Hacking, P.B., Young, J.S., Dickman, R.L., Claussen, M.J., Salpeter, E.E., Houck, J.R., Terzian, Y., Lewis, B.M., & Shure, M. A. 1989, AJ 97, 666.
)


The NGC 5291 system

(
Figure 142: The NGC5291 System.
HI: VLA C+D-array, 26" x 15" resolution, contours=1
x 1020 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS, FOV=9' x 12'.
Reference: Malphrus, B. K., Simpson, C. E., Gottesman, S. T., & Hawarden, T. G. 1997, AJ 114, 1427.
)


The NGC 4532 system

(
Figure 143: The NGC4532 System.
HI: Dotted contours: Arecibo single dish mapping, contours at (2, 4)
x 1019 cm-2 x 2n. Solid contours: VLA C+D-array, 46" x 42" resolution, contours=1.8 x 1020 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS, FOV=18' x 18'.
Reference: Hoffman, G. L., Lu, N. Y., Salpeter, E. E., & Connell, B. M. 1999, AJ 117, 811.
)


The NGC 2964 / 2968 / 2970 system

(
Figure 144: The NGC 2964/2968/2970 System.
HI: VLA D-array, 60" x 51" resolution, contours=2
x 1019 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS, FOV=14' x 14'.
Notes: This system was targeted because of the presence of the Type I supernova 1970l that was observed to lie between NGC2968 and NGC2970.
Reference: Tyson & van Gorkom, these proceedings, p. 864.
)


The Arp 317 system

(
Figure 145: The Leo Triplet.
HI: Arecibo single dish map. Contours=(3, 5, 10, 15, 25, 50, 75, 100, 200, 400, 600) K km s
-1.
Optical: DSS, FOV=87' x 60'.
Reference: Haynes, M. P., Giovanelli, R., Roberts, M.S. 1979, ApJ 229, 83.
)


The NGC 3628 system

(
Figure 146: The Leo Triplet Member NGC3628.
HI: VLA D-array, 60'' resolution, contours=(3.2, 4.8, 6.4, 9.6, 16)
x1020 1019- 19 cm-2.
Optical: Top two panels: DSS, FOV=22' x 8'. Third panel: DSS, FOV=66' x 22'. Bottom panel: Palomar 48'' Schmidt (B) second blue survey with high-contrast development by James Schombert, FOV=39' x 10'.
Notes: The dotted boxes in the third panel delineates the regions shown in the other panels.
Reference: Appleton & Hughes, these proceedings, p. 856.
)


The Arp 141 system

(
Figure 147: The Ring Galaxy System Arp 141.
HI: VLA B+C+D-array, 22" x 21" resolution, contours=3
x 1019 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS, FOV=14' x 11'.
Reference: Higdon et al., these proceedings, p. 859.
)


The 5915 / 6 system

(
Figure 148: The NGC 5915/6 System.
HI: VLA D-array, 60'' resolution, contours=4
x 1019 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: DSS, FOV=13' x 14'.
Reference: Hameed & Young, these proceedings, p. 857.
)


The Arp 314 system

(
Figure 149: The Arp 314 System.
HI: VLA D-array, 72'' resolution, contours=1
x 1019 cm-2 x 2n.
Optical: Palomar 5m Gunn r, FOV=11' x 11'.
Reference: Nordgren, T. E., Chengalur, J. N., Salpeter, E. E., & Terzian, Y. 1997, AJ 114, 913.
)


The Arp 313 system

(
Figure 150: The Arp 313 System.
HI: Lower left panel: WSRT, 30'' resolution, contours=5
x 1019 cm-2 x 2n. Lower right panel: VLA D-array, 48" x 44" resolution.
Optical: DSS, FOV=14.0' x 11.6'.
Notes: The dotted outline in the lower left panel delineates the region shown in the other panels.
Reference: WSRT observations: Swaters, R. A., 1999, PhD thesis, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, and Swaters, R.A., van Albada, T.S., van der Hulst, J.M., & Sancisi, R., 2001, A&AS, submitted. VLA observations: Wilcots, E.M., & Prescott, M.K., 2001, AJ submitted.
)


The NGC 5506 / 7 system

(
Figure 151: The NGC5506/7 System.
HI: VLA D-array, 60" x 47.4" resolution, contours=1
x 1019 cm-2 x 2n