IX. Vast jets and galactic ejection phenomena:
Mass origin-ejection from active galactic nuclei?

Evidence and inferences from data have accumulated over recent decades suggesting that the vast jets of energetic ejecta emanating from the centers of active galaxies may be connected with the ejection of high redshift objects (QSOs, BSOs, BL Lac objects, young compact galaxies, &c.) from those AGN galaxies. Such a state of affairs has suggested to some cosmologists a new, empirical galactic cosmology--galaxies emerge by ejection from pre-existing galaxies, rather than condensing out of 'ripples' in an attenuated, expanding gas cloud as envisaged in the standard HBBC (hot big bang cosmology), and it's inflationary variations.

We next turn to exploring this class of galactic ejection phenomena, which was theoretically first framed as such following observations by the Soviet Armenian astrophysicist and astronomer Viktor Ambartsumian (see also introductory link). In summary this chapter turns attention to a class of galactic phenomena starting with observations in the 1950s and building since suggesting that galaxy systems and clusters may actually be gravitationally 'open' and that the assumed application of the virial theorem to galaxies and galaxy clusters as gravitationally 'bound' astrophysical systems in the Universe may be not be sound or empirical.

In classical (pre-quantum) physics, the virial theorem (link) was published by German physicist Rudolf J. E. Clasius, 1870. XVI. On a mechanical theorem applicable to heat, The London, Edinburgh, and Dublin Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science 40 (265), 122. https://doi.org/10.1080/14786447008640370. Virial comes from the Latin word vis for power, energy, or force. The theorem may summarized in this statement with the equation describing its consequences: The virial theorem relates the total kinetic energy in a stable system of discrete particles averaged over time bound by a conservative force such as gravitation with the total potential energy of the system, thus:

where T is the total kinetic energy of N particles, Fk is the force acting on the kth particle at location rk, while the angle brackets ⟨⟩ demarcate the average over time of the energies of the force-enclosed particles, so that the average total kinetic energy can be calculated for complex systems, as in statistical mechanics. These results can be generalized in a number of ways, including as indicated in classical statistical mechanics as relating the temperature (K) of a system to total kinetic energy both for systems in and out of thermal equilibrium, and the theorem can be stated in the versatile form of a tensor (link). The virial theorem has had a variety of generalized derivations and applications in classical mechanics, thermodynamics, classical electrodynamics, and quantum mechanics, including quantum chemical and molecular systems, in special and general relativity, including to derive the Chandresekhar limit for white dwarf star stability.

It is relevant to our cosmological discussion here to briefly consider stably-bound gravitational (virial) systems summed / averaged over time:

where VTOT is the total potential energy, specifically where the potential energy V = between two particles is proportional to the power n of the distance between them, rij. For a bound gravitational system, n = -1, yielding Lagrange's identity.  


Averaging the derivative over the duration time of τ, we find

From which we obtain,

Applying the virial theorem, provided that the average time derivative vanishes, dG/dtτ = 0, provides a gravitational derivation of the theorem:


Now there are many possible reasons why the time derivative might vanish,
dG/dtτ = 0, but the commonly assumed reason in cosmology is that it applies to stable, gravitationally-bound systems which persist forever with finite parameters, so that the velocities and coordinates of the bound particles of the system have upper and lower limits such that Gbound has the limits Gmax and Gmin, and thus the average --> 0 at the limit of infinite duration of τ:

With a power law with exponent n, a general equation emerges:


Thus, when the dust settles for gravitational attraction where n = -1, then we have a general result which can be applied to complex bound gravitating systems like the solar system or other stellar systems, and presumably also to galaxies and galaxy clusters, where in a virial system, the internal Doppler shifts provide the
Gmax and the virial theorem provides Gmin.

With the ergodic hypothesis, i.e., ergodicity postulates the result that every material point is engaged uniformly in the moving system and will visit every part of the space of the bound system, which obviates the need to average the time derivative. Note that this ergodicity in this case is an assumption, not a hypothesis actually tested, and since the virial mass can also be suggested as the virial radius covering the region of space gravitationally-bounded essentially as a sphere, it already makes some over-simplifications, probably unwarranted under the most ideal virial theoretical conditions, besides being difficult to estimate.

All of this rests on two powerful and too often uncritically-examined assumptions, especially for viriality in systems in an HBB cosmology:
A historical note. In astrophysics and in galactic cosmology just a handful of years after the discovery of the Hubble H0 distance-relation, Swiss astronomer Fritz Zwicky applied the virial theorem to the Coma cluster of galaxies in 1933, with a paper called, The redshift of extragalactic nebulae. Helvetica Physica Acta 6, 110. https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1711/1711.01693.pdf; https://authors.library.caltech.edu/92130/. Estimating that the number of galaxies in Coma were N = 800 each with a mass m = 109 M, which are bound within a radius of R = 106 ly, where he also measured the radial velocities as determined by Doppler shifts in galactic spectra to be ~1000 km s-1, while assuming the equipartition of kinetic energy, . While the observed mass of the Coma cluster is Nm = 1011 M, under his assumption of the virial theorem applying to the cluster of galaxies the virial mass of Coma cluster should be:  


suggesting that the total virial mass of the Coma galaxy cluster is 450X the observed mass, suggesting a vast amount of invisible matter or what is called now, 'dark matter,' and in the current ΛCDM HBB cosmology, this means the hypothetical non-baryonic (not protons or neutrons / hadrons) 'dark matter.' A few years later, Zwicky (1937) published, On the masses of nebulae and of clusters of nebulae. AJ 86 (2), 217. https://articles.adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-iarticle_query?1937ApJ....86..217Z, when he revised the total virial mass up to about 500X the observed mass. See also Bertone, G. & Hooper, D. 2018. History of dark matter. Reviews of Modern Physics 90 (4). https://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/RevModPhys.90.045002.

Even worse than simply assuming the rigorous form of the virial theorem in galactic cosmogony within the HBBC setting is the determination of the virial mass / virial radius of a galaxy or galaxy cluster as that radius within which the average matter density is greater by some specified amount than the 'critical density' for gravitational collapse within the Friedmann cosmology [Friedman, A. 1922. Uber die Krummung des Raumes. Z. Phys. (in German) 10 (1), 37. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01332580. In English: Friedman, A (1999). On the curvature of space. General Relativity and Gravitation 31 (12), 1991-2000.
https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1026751225741. Friedmann, A. 1924. Uber die Moglichkeit einer Welt mit konstanter negativer Krummung des Raumes. Z. Phys. (in German) 21 (1), 326. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01328280. Friedmann, A (1999). On the Possibility of a World with Constant Negative Curvature of Space. General Relativity and Gravitation 31 (12), 2001-2008. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1026755309811].

where H is the Hubble distance-redshift parameter and G is the ordinary gravitational constant. The virial radius specified factor is often 200, which roughly corresponds to spherical top-hat collapse, where rvir ~ r200 = r, and ρ = (200)( ρcrit). This may be convenient, but it assumes and imports not only some large assumptions, but the whole HBB cosmology, now in its Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) latest edition, the ΛCDM recension of the New Ptolemaic system.

On a much more sound basis, the virial theorem has been applied in ordinary stellar astrophysics as described by George W. Collins, II. 1978. 2003 internet version. The Virial Theorem in Stellar Astrophysics. Pachart Publishing House: https://ads.harvard.edu/books/1978vtsa.book/; cf. https://openlibrary.org/publishers/Pachart_Pub._House.

We now examine data which suggest that the entire virial theorem set of assumptions, whether in the rigorous or in the FLRW 'lazy' form for galaxies and galaxy clusters are wrong. This goes beyond MOND. Again, I suspect that the Machian Hoyle-Narlikar variable mass theory may provide a general framework forward.

As for electromagnetism, the virial theorem has been extended to the classic electric and the magnetic fields thus:

where I = the moment of inertia, G = the momentum density of the electromagnetic field, T = the "fluid" kinetic energy, U is the "thermal" energy of the particles, WE and WM are respectively the electric and magnetic energy content of the volume under consideration, pik is the 'fluid'-pressure tensor expressed in the local moving coordinate system, and Tik is the electromagnetic stress tensor. See Schmidt, G. (1979). Physics of High Temperature Plasmas (2nd ed.). Cambridge, MA: Academic Press; p. 72. My colleague, Joe Bakhos holds that his developing Cyclic Gravity and Cosmology (CGC) model (https://taurusreport.com/) is compliant with the EM extension of the virial theorem. We await details on this emerging model.

The virial theorem has been extended to quantum mechanics in general and to the nonlinear Schrodinger equation in particular, as well as to special relativity and relativistic systems. In sum, generalizations of the virial theorem (link) have been done by Lord Rayleigh (1903), by Henri Poincare (1911) in relation to the evolution or cosmogony of the solar system from a proto-stellar cloud, by Ledoux (1945) for stellar pulsation. Tensor forms have been developed by Parker (1954), Fermi (1953), and Chandrasekhar (1962). In 1964, Pollard generalized it to apply to the inverse square law: Pollard, H. 1964. A sharp form of the virial theorem. Bull. Amer. Math. Soc. 70 (5), 703; Pollard, H. 1966. Mathematical Introduction to Celestial Mechanics. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall: 


to which a boundary condition must be set: Kolár, M. & O'Shea, S. F. (1996). A high-temperature approximation for the path-integral quantum Monte Carlo method. J. of Physics A: Mathematical and General. 29 (13), 3471. https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/0305-4470/29/13/018. We may return to these generalizations in some detail as needed for our discussion.

However for now, we turn next to a fascinating and unexpected set of galactic phenomena which began to be discovered in the 1950s.

[1133 & 632]

In the 1950s, Ambartsumian first suggested that some galaxy clusters are gravitationally 'open' rather than 'bound,' and are thus coming apart (1958; 1961; 1965).

In 1961, Ambartsumian speaking on the "Problems of Extra-Galactic Research" laid out a much deeper implication, ".... One of the problems confronting us in the study of the outflow of matter and ejections from the nuclei of the galaxies is the quantitative evolution of the ejected masses. This refers equally to those galaxies, of which the central parts show emission lines, and to the radio galaxies and to other examples with discrete ejections.... The few facts at our disposal show that these data may conflict with the law of conservation of energy (/ matter) in its present form, and may perhaps require a generalization of this law." That is, dG/dtτ does not = 0!

Viktor Ambartsumian
Armenian astrophysicist and astronomer; Soviet statesman.

Halton Arp

American astronomer.

Starting in the 1960s, Arp discovered galaxies with peculiar morphologies and associations, and over the years championed the evidence for non-Hubble redshifts, galactic associations, ejections, and alignments with galactic jets. He has proposed an episodic creation of matter in galaxy centers (empirical Machian cosmogony; cf. Narlikar & Hoyle, 1964). This started with the Atlas of Peculiar Galaxies (https://ned.ipac.caltech.edu/level5/Arp/frames.html; cf. the "The introduction to Anomalous redshifts," by the Anomalous redshift investigator, https://arijmaki.wordpress.com/2009/05/).

Arp's evidence has been reviewed in a 9-part series (link).
In this chapter, we will refer to the ejection hypothesis as the Ambartsumian-Arp galactic cosmogony (AAGC);

Below are some examples of apparent galactic ejection systems, and these are considered in the light of Ambartsumian's conjectures about generalization of the law of conservation of mass-energy. In the late 1960s as the "war of the world-views" between the HBBC and CSSC was still raging, evidence began emerging of active galactic ejections of compact companion galaxies, QSOs, BSOs, and so forth, with excess redshifts. From the standpoint of fundamental physics, these data suggest an alternative mass-connected multiplicative rather than additive view of continuous creation as postulated in the Classic Steady State Cosmologies.

Here we follow the order of discovery as noted by Halton Arp late in his life in the sections of his 2003 Catalogue of Discordant Redshift Associations (Montreal: Apeiron, Roy Keys). And we pair these discoveries with imagery optic-telescopic, radio, x-ray, gamma ray, and infrared, where available.

In 1967, Arp noted that the radio sources 3C 273 and 3C 274 are paired across the brightest galaxy M49 in the nearby Virgo Cluster
(Arp, 1967. ApJ 148, 321). The pattern of pairing of radio sources across central bright galaxies is recurring.
In 1968, Arp published in an Armenian Academy of Sciences physics journal (with the support of Viktor Ambartsumian) the apparently associated pair of quasars across galaxy IC 1767 (
Arp, 1968. Astrofizika 4, 59; link; cf. link; & link; https://kosmoved.ru/nebo_segodnya_geo.php?lang=eng&m=sky-map-online). Not only did this association reveal a strange axial juxtaposition, but the redshifts of the quasars were comparable and significantly higher than that of the central galaxy, and when in the rest frame of the central galaxy, often fell near the Karlsson redshift periodicity peaks. This pattern is recurring.

(Arp, 2003 Op. cit.; https://theskylive.com/sky/deepsky/ic1767-object; galaxy classification link).

The NGC 470 / 474 (Arp 227) system was also discovered early in this quest for anomalous redshift, galactic ejection phenomena (
Arp, 1970. Redshifts of companion galaxies. Nature 225, 1033. https://doi.org/10.1038/2251033b0).

(Arp, 2003 Op. cit.; https://www.astrobin.com/ge3oq1/?nc=all, labeling; Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope photo, CFHT; Fig. 114 crop Radiogalaxies, note that the main HI atomic radio emission isophote axes from NGC 470 roughly align with the 3C pair). At the lower right, it is most curious that an active galactic nucleus has intense HI atomic radio emissions centered on it, where a quiescent galactic nucleus so notably does not. Some unknown physical process seems to be activated in the one and not in the other.

Another example is the NGC 7451 system also published in 1968 (Arp,
Astrofizika 4, 59) with a low redshift nearby starburst galaxy (lots of star formation) with a blue jet, aligned with 3C radio sources (3C 458 redshift of z = 0.29 determined later). 

(Arp, 2003 Op. cit.; wide angle view; HST view tilted by C. Seligman to where celestial north is up; Hubble de Vaucouleur classification: https://theskylive.com/sky/deepsky/ngc7451-object; supernova SN 1998dh, Rochester SN gallery, UC Berkeley KAIT SN search telescope).

The Seyfert galaxy NGC 4258 / M106 system was found to have paired companion X-ray quasars, s
uperimposed X-ray image of higher redshift QSOs aligned across Seyfert galaxy NGC 4258. Pietsch et al. (1994; A&A 284, 486) postulated that these X-ray QSOs had been ejected nearly along the minor axis of the galaxy. They were confirmed as quasars by Margaret Burbidge (E. M. Burbidge, 1995. A&A 298, L1; adabs.harvard.edu service; cited by Arp, 1998 and Burbidge et al. 1999). Some highly energetic, even explosive processes seem to be occurring in the core of M106.

Cf. Burbidge, E. M. & Burbidge, G. 1997. Ejection of matter and energy from NGC 4258. ApJ 477 (1), L13. https://doi.org/10.1086/310517; 1996 preprint, Fig. 1.

(Arp, 2003 Op. cit.; http://www.haltonarp.com/?Page=Images; Irida Observatory; various energies of X-ray emission, NASA Goddard ROSAT galaxies; X-ray sources, &c., Chandra; Burbidge & Burbidge (1997), Fig. 1; Harvard: Optical, X-ray, radio, infrared, composite; cf. the XMM-Newton X-ray image).

The NGC 4235 is a Seyfert galaxy at the center. ....

(Arp, 2003 Op. cit.; NGC 4235 by C. Seligman; BASS Survey database home; active galactic nucleus link).

NGC 3516.....

(Arp, 2003 Op. cit.;

NGC 5985.....

(Arp, 2003 Op. cit.;

NGC 2639.....

(Arp, 2003 Op. cit.;

NGC 2630.......

(Arp, 2003 Op. cit.;

Arp 220.....

(Arp, 2003 Op. cit.;

Quantized redshifts or redshift periodicity connected with the Ambartsumian-Arp galactic ejection cosmogony hypothesis. (cf. Arp, 2003. Catalogue of Discordant Redshift Associations; pp. 13-16) The clustering of redshift quantities around certain "preferred values" was discovered by Burbidge & Burbidge (1967. Limits to the distance of the Quasi-Stellar Objects deduced from their absorption line spectra. ApJ 148, L107. https://www.adsabs.harvard.edu/full/1967ApJ). K. G. Karlsson (1971. Possible discretization of quasar redshifts. Astron. Astrophys. 13, 333. https://adsabs.harvard.edu/pdf/1971) showed that these discrete values follow an empirical relationship, (1 + z2) / (1 + z1) = 1.23, where
z1 = the lower redshift and z2 = the next higher redshift up (Arp, 1998. Seeing Red; p. 203) yielding preferred redshift peaks or periodicities in a geometric series or Karlsson series, where z1 = or corresponds to zi and z2 = or corresponds to zi + 1, with terms reordered thus:

Karlsson showed that the first six elements of the series were observed in the available redshift data, and further he predicted the existence of the next higher peaks with values of z = 2.64 and 3.48. So, given that we repeatedly observe pairs of quasars or other higher redshift compact objects juxtaposed across the minor axis of lower redshift active galaxies as if ejected in pairs from the putative parent galaxy with its lower redshift (zG), suppose that we consider the putatively ejected pair of quasars with their measured redshifts in Table 1 (z1, z2), we can relate them to the parent galaxy redshift (zG) by correcting their redshifts to be in the reference frame of the active center of the parent galaxy (zG), i.e., zQ, related by (1 + zQ) = (1 + z1) / (1 + zG). The difference between zQ and the next Karlsson peak in the series is assumed to predict the actual velocity of ejection, vej in units of c, that is, (1 + vej) = (1 + zQ) / (1 + zp), where zp = the redshift of that nearest Karlsson periodicity peak.

From the group of galaxy pairs in Table 1, Table 2 shows the average velocity of separation between the ejecting galaxy and the ejected object as a function of the redshift. Note how they cluster around the Karlsson series periodic values.

The slightly ambiguous departures from the preferred peaks in Table 1 of the NGC 4258 and NGC 4235 results, Arp (2003 Ibid.) argues, is because they should be closer to the predicted peaks when falling back in rather than being outward movement still from the AGN ejection, as predicted in the later stages of the Ambartsumian-Arp galactic ejection cosmogony hypothesis, when compact, higher redshift objects subside back into the cluster as a companion, satellite galaxy with a lower evolved redshift (see Ambartsumian-Arp galactic cosmogony diagrams below). This allows us to introduce in outline and relate to Karlsson periodicity the Ambartsumian-Arp galaxy ejection cosmogony, to which we will return in greater detail in this chapter and in a later chapter:


(link; cf. link).
More recently-ejected higher redshift QSOs would be closer in angular distribution to the minor axis of the ejecting active galaxy, while the more anciently-ejected objects which evolved into lower redshift companion galaxies would be found in a more relaxed, wider angular distribution around the parent galaxy's minor axis. 

(Image modified from H. Arp [1998a; 1998b] following the modified Machian theory of Narlikar [1977].)

asdf: [1133 & 632]

For a fuller discussion of and literature about quantized redshifts and periodicity, see chapter VII. Unexpected Galaxy Redshifts, under the subheading, "Unexpected redshift periodicities which won't go away," and for more on theoretical cosmology issues raised by this cosmogony, see also chapters VIII and IX. 

Next we turn to some of the galaxies and extragalactive objects from the 3rd Cambridge catalogue.

3C 343.1....

(Arp, 2003 Op. cit.;

3C 441.... 

(Arp, 2003 Op. cit.;

2003Arp-z-Cat_f13_NGC 4319 Mrk 205.

(Arp, 2003 Op. cit.;

2003Arp-z-Cat_f14_NGC 3628:
The NGC 3628 (Leo Triplet) system.


Multiple evidences of galactic ejections, including higher redshift quasars (see below)

Neutral Hydrogen map of NGC 3628. Known QSOs with their z values; X's mark probable QSOs; arrows mark possible QSOs. (Dashed circle = Weedman's (1985) search field; Flesch and Arp, 1999;http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html?nosetcookie=1)

NGC 3628 in x-ray at 0.74 keV (Flesch and Arp, 1999;

NGC 3628 optical jet aiming toward QSO (Flesch and Arp, 1999;

(Arp, 2003 Op. cit.; Leo Triplet NGC 3628; Images courtesy of NRAO/AUI; LeoTriplet NGC 3628 system; Images courtesy of NRAO/AUI)

2003Arp-z-Cat_f15_3C 273.

The QSO 3C 273 system




3C273 jet -- optical, x-ray, and radio (false color images from http://chandra.harvard.edu)

Defined radio sources being ejected from QSO 3C273 (http://www.mpifr-bonn.mpg.de/public/science/3c273.gif).
It should not escape our notice that 3C273 is actually connected with the Virgo A supercluster system described next.

(Arp, 2003 Op. cit.;

2003Arp-z-Cat_f16_Arp 2002 Cepheids z H.

(Arp, 2003 Op. cit.;

2003Arp-z-Cat_f17_Tully-Fisher excess of Sc.

(Arp, 2003 Op. cit.;

2003Arp-z-Cat_f18_NGC 309.

(Arp, 2003 Op. cit.;

2003Arp-z-Cat_f19_excessive zs directed toward Local Group.

(Arp, 2003 Op. cit.;

2003Arp-z-Cat_f20_NGC 4156 / 4151.

(Arp, 2003 Op. cit.;

2003Arp-z-Cat_f21_NGC 4151 / ScI.

(Arp, 2003 Op. cit.;

2003Arp-z-Cat_References for the Introduction to the Catalogue of Discordant Redshift Associations (2003).

(Arp, 2003 Op. cit.;

While the Karlsson periodicity in redshifts was observed for bright quasars around low redshift galaxies, the rest frame of the fainter quasars around higher redshift galaxies was given by this equation (Arp, 2003), where:
The references for the Catalogue explanatory introduction:

(Arp, 2003 Op. cit.;

The Catalogue itself
. With the catalogue we add other papers, photos, and data which have emerged about these open extragalactic systems.

2003Arp-z-Cat-ent-f0_NGC 7817

(Arp, 2003 Op. cit.;

2003Arp-z-Cat-ent-f1_NGC 68.

(Arp, 2003 Op. cit.;

2003Arp-z-Cat-ent-f3_NGC 214.

(Arp, 2003 Op. cit.;

2003Arp-z-Cat-ent_ESO 475-20.

(Arp, 2003 Op. cit.;

2003Arp-z-Cat-ent_NGC 613.

(Arp, 2003 Op. cit.;

2003Arp-z-Cat-ent_NGC 622 & UM 341.

The remaining 7 QSOs in the field (Fig. 1; open circles) turn out to fit the Karlsson periodicity peaks around NGC 622 (zG = 0.017) when adjusted to the parent rest frame, like many active galaxies in the Perseus-Pisces filament and elsewhere across the sky, they have this 5000 km s-1 equivalent redshift.

It is critically important to note that the slight deviations (Δz) from the Karlsson periodicity peaks listed in the Table(s), one finds that they are likely small velocity differences relative + / - to the perspective of the observer in this relation: 1 + zv = (1 + z0) / (1 + zpeak), and listed as the small values in Fig. 2.   

The radio contour map linking NGC 622 to the z = 1.46 QSO suggests a recent ejection of the QSO, impacting and adding to the intergalactic medium.
(Arp, 2003 Op. cit.; Two groups of associated QSOs, when transformed into the respective rest frames of UM 341 and of NGC 622, each set of associated QSOs tends to fall into the respective Karlsson series periodic peak values associated with the rest frames of their putative parent galaxies;  

2003Arp-z-Cat-ent_NGC 720.

(Arp, 2003 Op. cit.; 

2003Arp-z-Cat-ent_ESO 359-G019.

(Arp, 2003 Op. cit.; [1133 & 632]

2003Arp-z-Cat-ent_NGC 2435 & companion.

(Arp, 2003 Op. cit.;

2003Arp-z-Cat-ent_Mrk 91.

Note: Mrk 91 = Rather bright, active galaxy; filled circles = quasars; open circles = Zwicky Cluster (Zw CL) & NGC 2600 cluster (N2600).

(Arp, 2003 Op. cit.;

2003Arp-z-Cat-ent_NGC 2649. In this map of x-ray galaxy clusters we see that the objects are aligned along the NGC2649 axis as a line. Not all alignments are pristine pairs.

(Arp, 2003 Op. cit.;

2003Arp-z-Cat-ent_NGC 3023.

(Arp, 2003 Op. cit.;

2003Arp-z-Cat-ent_ESO 567-33 & QSO.

Note: Aside from the aligned QSO pair with similar redshifts, we have other objects of interest in the field, warranting further investigation.

(Arp, 2003 Op. cit.;

2003Arp-z-Cat-ent_MCG+01-27-016 & companion.

(Arp, 2003 Op. cit.;

2003Arp-z-Cat-ent_MCG-02-27-009 & 'nearby bright quasar'.

Note: Between the study cited in Fig. 1 (Grindlay, J. E. & Hertz, P. 1981. ApJ 247, L17) and that in Fig. 2 (Drimmel, R. & Spergel, D. N. 2001. Three-dimensional structure of the Milky Way disk: The distribution of stars and dust beyond 0.35 R☉. ApJ 556 [1], 181. https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1086/321556), more than one possible alignment is observed. More study is needed.

(Arp, 2003 Op. cit.;

2003Arp-z-Cat-ent_NGC 3312.

Note: Most of the redshifts of objects in this field of view are higher than that of NGC 3312.

(Arp, 2003 Op. cit.;

2003Arp-z-Cat-ent_NGC 3593.

(Arp, 2003 Op. cit.;

2003Arp-z-Cat-ent_UGC 6312 System.

(Arp, 2003 Op. cit.;

2003Arp-z-Cat-ent_NGC 3865 System.

Note: The redshifts of the Abell Clusters would be critical for unfolding the nature of the cosmogony involved.

(Arp, 2003 Op. cit.;

2003Arp-z-Cat-ent_PG 1211 + 143 System, a part of the M87 Supersystem.

Note: The PG1211 + 143 system actually a very likely subsystem of the M87 Supersystem in the Virgo Supercluster. This Supersystem with its ramified subsystems gave us a ringside seat to the new Ambartsumian-Arp cosmogony. 

(Arp, 2003 Op. cit.;

2003Arp-z-Cat-ent_NGC 4410 System.

Note: As Arp (1988), Seeing Red; pp. 121, 142, has implied, this system may be a subsystem of the M87 Supersystem.

(Arp, 2003 Op. cit.;

2003Arp-z-Cat-ent_UM 602 System.

Note: When these QSO redshifts are converted to the UM 602 rest frame, then lo and behold, they average a z ~ 1.94, right near the Karlsson peak of z = 1.96.

(Arp, 2003 Op. cit.;

2003Arp-z-Cat-ent_Mrk 463 System.

(Arp, 2003 Op. cit.;

2003Arp-z-Cat-ent_Mrk 478 Systems.

Note: Fig. 1 shows an X-ray cluster with several blue objects trailing elongate accurately back toward the Markarian object at p.a. 46 deg. Like other Markarian galaxies, Mrk 478 exhibits alignments of associated very bright X-ray sources, predominantly 1XRS survey sources (Fig. 2).

(Arp, 2003 Op. cit.;

2003Arp-z-Cat-ent_UGC 9853 System.

(Arp, 2003 Op. cit.;

2003Arp-z-Cat-ent_MCG + 08-29-005 System.

(Arp, 2003 Op. cit.;

2003Arp-z-Cat-ent_NGC 6140 System.

Note: As Arp notes, only the brightest objects are plotted in Fig. 1.

Note: Fig. 2 PSPC X-ray sources join the Markarian object (small dots). 

Note: Fig. 3 is a radio image overlay of an HST optical image from Jackson et al. 1998. Astron. Astrophys. 334, L33. https://adsabs.harvard.edu/full/1998A&A...334L..33J.

(Arp, 2003 Op. cit.;

2003Arp-z-Cat-ent_NGC 6257 System.

Note: A close cluster of X-ray sources exist around Mrk 501 (≤15 arcmin; Fig. 2); alignments of sources abound, one extending toward Abell 2235. Arp notes that such X-ray source associations seem to occur around Markarian objects.

(Arp, 2003 Op. cit.;

2003Arp-z-Cat-ent_Mrk 892 System.

: In Fig. 1, five NGC galaxies are within 31 arcmin of Mrk 892, plus QSOs with redshifts of z = 1.14, 1.36, 1.42, 1.47, 1.54, and 3.23. There are also Seyfert galaxies within the field.

: In Fig. 2, there is a plethora of diverse objects in various juxtapositions: Within 10 arcmin, there is an alignment of higher redshift objects leading to the strong radio QSO 3C 351, embedded in a cluster of objects near its own redshift of z = 0.37. There is also an alignment of X-ray sources from Mrk 892 west into the 3C 351 aggregate. 

(Arp, 2003 Op. cit.;

2003Arp-z-Cat-ent_NGC 6965 System.

Note: When one corrects for the central galaxy rest frame then the redshifts fall close to the Karlsson periodicity peak values: z = 0.30, 0.60, 1.41, 1.96, 2.64, and 3.48.

(Arp, 2003 Op. cit.;


(Arp, 2003 Op. cit.;

2003Arp-z-Cat-ent_NGC 7107 System.

(Arp, 2003 Op. cit.;

2003Arp-z-Cat-ent_NGC 7131 System.

Note: blah blah....

(Arp, 2003 Op. cit.;

2003Arp-z-Cat-ent_NGC 7378 System.

(Arp, 2003 Op. cit.;

2003Arp-z-Cat-ent_UGC 12346 System.

(Arp, 2003 Op. cit.;

2003Arp-z-Cat-ent_NGC 7507 System.

Note: The QSO redshifts represented by filled circles in Fig. 1 follow the Karlsson periodicity of z = 0.30, 0.60, 0.96, 1.42, 1.96, 2.64, & 3.48, whereas the open circles stand for objects with redshifts between those peak values (see Fig. 2).    

(Arp, 2003 Op. cit.;

2003Arp-z-Cat-ent_NGC 7541 System.

(Arp, 2003 Op. cit.;

2003Arp-z-Cat-ent_Sey 23409-1511 System.

(Arp, 2003 Op. cit.;

2003Arp-z-Cat-ent_HCG 97 System.

(Arp, 2003 Op. cit.;

The Appendices A and B to Arp's 2003 Catalogue of Discordant Redshifts appeared first in journal publications, and is appended to go into greater detail on particular cases of discordant redshift associations implicative and illustrative of the details and patterns of other galactic ejective phenomena patterns in the systems in the Catalogue, putatively associated with what we call the Ambartsumian-Arp cosmogony. Appendix A focuses on the vast data and their implications with the nearby M101 system. In Appendix B, Arp turns to galactic filaments, clusters of galaxies, and the nature of galactic ejection phenomena. 

Arp, 2003. Appendix A. In Appendix A, Arp extends his discussion on the rich opulence of the ejection-rich environs of the M101 system, the Pinwheel Galaxy system.

(https://www.starkeeper.it/img/M101WF_Deep_Full_Annotated.jpg; see the full shot without the annotation: https://www.starkeeper.it/img/M101WF_Deep_Full.jpg).

M101 0.25 keV X-ray isophote contours (ROSAT)



The 3C 295 system
3C 295 HST and Chandra X-ray

Chandra X-ray image superimposed on the Hubble Space Telescope image (
X-ray: NASA/CXC/Cambridge/S. Allen et al; Optical: NASA/STScI): Illustrative of the x-ray centering of Abell 370 ejection phenomenon on the central radio galaxy.
http://chandra.harvard.edu/photo/2015/archives/archives_3c295.jpg); see Simbad entry: https://simbad.u-strasbg.fr/simbad/sim-id?Ident=3C295; https://ned.ipac.caltech.edu/byname?objname=3c295.

https://hea-www.harvard.edu/XJET/; https://hea-www.harvard.edu/XJET/source-d.cgi?3C295.

As discussed in chapter VII. Unexpected Redshifts, ever since 2001 with larger sets of quasar data, Burbidge, G. & Napier, W. M. 2001. The distribution of redshifts in new samples of Quasi-stellar Objects. AJ 121 (1), 21. https://doi.org/10.1086/318018, had been able to show direct observational evidence for the next set of predicted (by the formula) Karlsson redshift periodicity peaks, z = 2.63, 3.45, and 4.47, beyond what had been observed before.

Since M101 is in close enough proximity to us that the redshift peaks can be picked out even without correcting for the rest frame of the parent galaxy, M101.

This provides further strong confirmatory evidence that the Karlsson periodicity shows up even in our local extragalactic cosmic neighborhood.

(Arp, 2003 Op. cit.;
Appendix A

(Arp, 2003 Op. cit.).

Arp, 2003. Appendix B.
A number of phenomena including filaments of galaxies, clusters of galaxies, and clues about the nature of galactic ejection phenomena are the subject this appendix. 

The NGC 7319 system

A relatively nearby galaxy NGC 7319 with low redshift (z = 0.0225) has a much higher redshift quasar or QSO (z = 2.11) in front of it (i.e., closer to Earth)! A Hubble-relation interpretation of the redshifts would put the QSO 90 times farther away, an obvious impossibility.

Inset: There may be an ejection feature connecting the QSO to the galaxy.

(See also http://www.haltonarp.com/articles/pdf/pp-03-01.pdf).

The NGC 3079 system


(Hoyle & Burbidge, 1996 citing Womble, 1993 Ph.D. dissertation);
Arp found four QSOs associated with NGC 3079, suggesting possible ejection (http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html?nosetcookie=1).

NGC 3079 in optical and X-ray (Chandra).

The NGC 3079 system: Apparent ejection features of NGC 3073 and MCG +9-17-09. Note how the radio image surrounding the small, compact elliptical galaxy at the lower left, trails away on an axis aligned with or orthogonal to the active galactic core of NGC 3073 (images courtesy of NRAO/AUI).

The NGC 4631 system

Optical and x-ray images superimposed (http://chandra.harvard.edu).

X-ray objects clustered around and seeming to emerge from the galaxy NGC 4631?
(Images courtesy of the Chandra orbiting X-ray observatory).

The Coma Cluster of galaxies
XCOM designates a Seyfert galaxy of z = 0.09 (Image used by kind permission from Arp, 1998)
Coma Cluster: Optical & X-ray views indicate one central focus of X-ray activity in the Coma cluster of galaxies (http://chandra.harvard.edu/xray_sources/coma.html).

(Image used by permission from Arp, 1998),

The Pictorus A system

X-ray & radio wavelengths (Images courtesy of http://chandra.harvard.edu & NRAO/AU).

(Image courtesy of Arp, 1998)

Animation of a series of radio images of mass ejections from 3C 345

at 10.7 GHz over the span of 5 years (
if the object was really at 1700 MegaParsecs as most cosmologists claim, its jets would be exceeding 7 times the speed of light!) Courtesy John Biretta / Space Telecope Science Institute (http://www.achilles.net/~jtalbot/index.html).


Extremely metal-poor Blue Compact Dwarf SBS 0335-052

apparently ejected from NGC 1376 (Image courtesy of NRAO/AUI).

The 3C 303 system

SDSS optical image of 3C 303.

tots flux

3C 303 (z=0.141): Total flux, 1987 separation 2 GHz, Katakoa et al. (2003): https://hea-www.harvard.edu/XJET/source-d.cgi?3C303; 1477 Hz and a QSO in the system with z=1.57 has been cited by Burbidge as an example of discordant redshift, but debunked here (http://www.jb.man.ac.uk/atlas/object/3C303.html); cf. current observed, http://holographicgalaxy.blogspot.com/2011/06/galaxy-3c303-black-hole-magnetic-field.html.

3C 303 radio observations and the study by Kroneberg et al. (2009): http://holographicgalaxy.blogspot.com/2011/06/galaxy-3c303-black-hole-magnetic-field.html. VLA observations at 1406.75 MHz and 4866 MHz (https://www.researchgate.net/figure/49GHz-VLA-image-of-the-3C303-jet-at-035-resolution-showing-the-three-prominent_fig2_228524499).

10 arcminute field around 3C 303. "
Image is from Digitized Sky Survey (POSS2/UKSTU Blue) and it has been adjusted for brightness and contrast to bring out faint objects" (https://arijmaki.wordpress.com/2009/12/25/3c-303-a-nearby-qso-with-possible-radio-bridge/).

Table of some of the extragalactic sources in angular proximity to 3C 303:


Of the extragalactic sources within 10 arcminutes of 3C303 (z=0.141) and the QSO (z=1.57) only ~1.9 arcseconds removed, there are a total of 37 extragalactic sources with redshifts varying between z= 0.089365 to 3.045000 (NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database, NED).

Recap of radio imagery at 1.4 GHz and 4.87 GHz (Lapenta & Kronberg, 2005).

Select References on 3C 303

Arp, 1987, IAUS, 124, 479, �Observations requiring a non-standard approach�

Kataoka et al., 2003, A&A, 399, 91, �Chandra detection of hotspot and knots of 3C 303�

Kronberg, 1976, ApJ, 203, 47, �3C 303: a source with unusual radio and optical properties�

Kronberg et al., 1977, ApJ, 218, 8, �The radio structure and optical field of 3C 303�

Lonsdale et al., 1983, MNRAS, 202, 1, �The radio structure of 3C303 at 408 MHz�

L�hteenm�ki & Valtaoja, 1999, AJ, 117, 1168, �Optical Polarization and Imaging of Hot Spots in Radio Galaxies�

Meisenheimer et al., 1997, A&A, 325, 57, �The synchrotron spectra of radio hot spots. II. Infrared imaging�


The Markarian 273 system


The M87 (Virgo A) or the Virgo Supercluster system
Virgo supercluster of galaxies

constellations with Virgo Supercluster
Constellation Virgo namesake for the Supercluster (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Messier_87#/media/File:Virgo_constellation_map.svg).

ESO view of M87
Virgo Cluster photo taken through the ESO (European Southern Observatory) by Chris Mihos and colleagues (2009, Case Western Reserve University), with the bright, foreground stars in our own galaxy blacked out. Across the top, one sees the Markarian Chain of galaxies: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Messier_87#/media/File:ESO-M87.jpg.

Hubble view
M87 with its jet (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Messier_87#/media/File:Messier_87_Hubble_WikiSky.jpg).

The bright ellipical radio galaxy Messier 87 (NGC 4486) is perhaps best known for the vast jet emitting synchrotron radiation seen here. This image, taken in red light using a TI CCD at the Kitt Peak 2.1m telescope, is stretched to emphasize the bright regions and the jet. (http://crux.astr.ua.edu/gifimages/m87inner.html)

(Image courtesy of NRAO/AUI)

3 wavelengths
Radio and visible light and closeup of radio core (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Messier_87#/media/File:Close-Up_Look_at_a_Jet_Near_a_Black_Hole.jpg).

"Infrared image of M87 from the Spitzer Space Telescope showing shocks produced by the jets"

Super volcano
"In this X-ray (Chandra) and radio (VLA) composite image, hot matter (blue in X-ray) from the Virgo cluster falls toward the core of M87 and cools, where it is met by the relativistic jet (orange in radio), producing shock waves in the galaxy's interstellar medium" (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Messier_87#/media/File:M87_Super-Volcano.jpg).

Startling 2019 radio image (
λ = 1.3 mm) of the shadow of the massive black hole in the center of the M87 system.
Black hole M87

"The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) -- a planet-scale array of eight ground-based radio telescopes forged through international collaboration -- was designed to capture images of a black hole.... These observations were collected at a wavelength of 1.3 mm in the 2017 campaign. Each telescope of the EHT produced enormous amounts of data -- roughly 350 terabytes per day -- which was stored on high-performance helium-filled hard drives. These data were flown to highly specialised supercomputers k --nown as correlators -- at the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy and MIT Haystack Observatory to be combined. They were then painstakingly converted into an image using novel computational tools developed by the collaboration. This image is the average of three different imaging methods..." (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Messier_87#/media/File:Black_hole_-_Messier_87_crop_max_res.jpg).

jet spiral helix
This sequence of images, taken by the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope over a period of 13 years, reveals changes in a black-hole-powered jet of hot gas in the giant elliptical galaxy M87. The observations show that the river of plasma, travelling at nearly the speed of light, may follow the spiral structure of the black hole's magnetic field, which astronomers think is coiled like a helix. The magnetic field is believed to arise from a spinning accretion disc of material around a black hole" ().

Animation of a series of optical images of M87
(NGC 4486) taken by the Hubble Space
Telescope over a span of 5 years. (If the object is
at a cosmological distance, it's jets are traveling at 6 times the
speed of light!) Courtesy John Biretta/Space
Telecope Science Institute (http://www.achilles.net/~jtalbot/index.html).

(Cited in Hoyle et al. 1993; http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html?nosetcookie=1).

X-ray images of M87 broad center & alignment of M84 and a quasar

M87 in Virgo and all location of all the Abell clusters >17.2 mag marked by '+'
(Image used by kind permission from Arp, 1998).

Apparent 'finger of God' resulting from non-Hubble redshift (expressed in km s-1)
seemingly 'intrinsic' to galactic type; see next figure (Image used by kind permission from Arp, 1998).

 Non-Hubble relation link between redshift (in km s-1) and galaxy type
indicating an 'intrinsic' component to galactic redshifts that are not distance-related (Image used by kind permission from Arp, 1998).

The Leo Ring system

Vast field of apparently ejected H surrounding this cluster of galaxies. Optical and radio images

(Images courtesy of NRAO/AUI).

The II Zw 40 system

Blue Compact Dwarf II Zw40
(Images courtesy of NRAO/AUI).

The NGC 5291 system

Vast field of apparently ejected hydrogen (H) aligned along this cluster of active galaxies: Optical and radio images.
(Images courtesy of NRAO/AUI)

The LEDA 213577 / NGC 2777 system

Apparent ejection activity connecting a metal poor (young!) galaxy NGC 2777 with older galaxy LEDA 213577.
Optical and radio images (Courtesy of NRAO/AUI; Arp & Sulentic, 1990)

The low metal / high hydrogen spectra below indicate a very young galaxy where the stars have not had time yet to fuse much of the primordial hydrogen fuel into elements with higher atomic numbers.

The Arp5 (NGC 3664) system

Apparent ejection of NGC 3664A from NGC 3664. Optical and radio ejection features connecting the two galaxies.
(Images courtesy of NRAO/AUI)

The Arp 1 system

The apparent ejection of a higher redshift galaxy and QSO aligned with Arp 1

The NGC 2964-2968-2970 Triplet system

Apparent ejection features connecting the galaxies in radio frequencies
(Images courtesy of NRAO/AUI).

The NGC 5018 system

Apparent ejection-interaction radio features connecting two galaxies but 'avoiding' NGC 5018. Optical and radio images
(Image courtesy of NRAO/AUI).

Alignments: Further evidence for ejection?


High z QSOs with emission line galaxy
High redhsift quasars of z = 4.882 and z = 4.800 are aligned across an emission line galaxy of z = 0.733.
Emission Ly alpha can be seen intruding into the spectrum of the lower redshift, central galaxy (Vanzella et al. astro-ph/0406591; Image kind courtesy of www.haltonarp.com).

Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) as optically transient (OT) phenomena & their associations with Galaxies & QSOs

GRB & associated galaxies
The OT (Optical Transient) is the afterglow of a gamma ray burst with a redshift of z = 0.691 with galaxies 1 and 2 having z = 0.472
(Masetti et al. 2003;
Image kind courtesy of www.haltonarp.com).

Interestingly, a number of GRBs have been associated in angular proximity to galaxies and QSOs (see Burbridge, 2003). More data to be posted here soon.

The M82 system
(Galaxy on right)

M82 -- a hydrogen-alpha image, indicating an apparent massive explosion (King, 1968).


M82 (NGC 3034) with 4 QSOs in the quadrant with most of the ejected gas: Numbers 1-4 respectively correspond with these redishifts:
zQ = 2.053, 2.058, 2.033, and 0.85 (Hoyle et al. 2000).

Searches with the Russian 6-meter telescope led to the discovery of 5 more QSOs to make a new total of at least 9 QSOs associated with active galaxy M82 up to that point with the publication by Dahlem in 1998 (Burbidge M et al. 2003). After Dahlem (1998) the situation changed yet again, with several more QSOs discovered!


Now we recognize at least 15 or so QSOs (with redshift z values indicated) associated with M82 as well as galactic clusters (Burbidge M et al. 2003 citing Dahlem et al. 1998). A molecular gas outflow has been found in the very direction of ESE QSOs at p.a. = 110 deg. (Walter et al. 2002, Fig. 1; cited in Burbidge M et al. 2003).

X-ray objects (ROSAT survey) along with the quasars associated with M82 (Burbidge M et al. 2003), perhaps all part of the ejection phenomena associated with this remarkable AGN. 

Unexpected associations by Ejection?

(Arrows indicating quasars; image from http://www.astronomy.com/asy/default.aspx?c=a&id=3430).
Low redshift, barred spiral galaxy NGC 1073 with three putatively associated, high redshift QSOs (discovered by H. Arp; cited in Burbidge et al. 1999). Note alignment with spiral arms.

Local, low redshift galaxy NGC 3842 with three putatively associated, more high redshift QSOs
(discovered by H. Arp; cited in Burbidge et al. 1999).

Higher redshift blue stellar objects (BSOs) aligned across Seyfert galaxy NGC 4258

(cited by Arp, 1998 and Burbidge et al. 1999). Optical with superimposed x-ray images (0.1-2.4 keV).

Galaxy-QSO pair 0248 + 430: X-ray contour map. zG = 0.051 and zQ = 1.311

(from Hoyle et al. 2000).

The NGC 4319 - Markarian 205 system

A Hubble telescope release which lowered the light in the image to diminish the connection between the galaxy and Mrk 205 (ower right). In fact the connection between the galaxy's own nucleus and outer arms is obscured. (To see an 'undampened' composite image of the system, see following discussion).


Thus proclaims a Hubble press release on the NGC 4319 / Mrk 205 system: "Appearances can be deceiving. In this NASA Hubble Space Telescope image, an odd celestial duo, the spiral galaxy NGC 4319 [center] and a quasar called Markarian 205 [lower right], appear to be neighbors. In reality, the two objects don't even live in the same city. They are separated by time and space. NGC 4319 is 80 million light-years from Earth. Markarian 205 (Mrk 205) is more than 14 times farther away, residing 1 billion light-years from Earth. The apparent close alignment of Mrk 205 and NGC 4319 is simply a matter of chance." It seems that Hubble's press release was what was deceiving. See the increased contrast image and the 'undampened' composite image below:

However, when the contrast is increased one very quickly sees that there is a 'bridge' connecting the two galaxies even in the HST's very much dimmed image (note how even the regular arms of the galaxy have been darkened out). (See www.haltonarp.org/).

When the HST press release image is 'undampened' by being combined with a deep print image, the connection becomes visible:

To see the larger 'undampened' composite image with Halton Arp's comments, click here.

Galaxy NGC 4319 (zG = 0.0057) and QSO Markarian 205 (zQ = 0.07): Optical image, radio contour (white lines); x-ray contour (dark lines) centered on Mrk 205 (Sulentic and Arp, 1987).

The NGC 3561 system
"Ambartsumian's Knot"
Ambartsumian's knot
Negative of Ambartsumian's Knot
Images (http://www.astrosurf.com/topic/80142-mise-%C3%A0-jour-du-site-arp/; cf. http://www.astrosurf.com/arp/).

Arp 105
Image: Adam Block (2018), 32-inch Schulman Telescope, Mt. Lemmon Skycenter, Univ. of AZ (link).

NGC 3561A & B: Active galaxy ejecting a younger galaxy (Image used by kind permission from Arp, 1998)
(Yellow point at lower right is a high redshift QSO; cited in Arp, 1998 and Burbidge et al. 1999).

The 'Stephen's Quintet' system

The close, physical association of galaxies in Stephan's Quintet with markedly different redshifts
(indicated below in Doppler recession velocities)

A tail connecting low-redshift NGC 7320 with high-redshift NGC 7320C (redshift c ~10 times higher than that of NGC 7320).

Image by amateur astronomer John Smith

X-ray image superimposed on optical image indicating interaction (Chandra):
Note two strong x-ray active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at 10 and 4 o'clock


X-ray contours superimporimposed on optical image in blue (ROSAT):
Note that NGC 7320 (lower left) with a redshift ~800 km/sec is interacting with galaxies with redshift Doppler equivalents of ~5700 km/sec and ~7600 km/sec!


And of course, from the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST):
NGC 7317, NGC 7318A / 7318B, NGC 7319, and NGC 7320, or Stephan's Quintet of galaxies (also known as Hickson Compact Group 92; HCG 92).

The NGC 5985 system
NGC 5985
NGC 5985 (https://astropolis.pl/topic/39573-noc-2021-wrze%C5%9Bnia/).
NGC 5985
NGC 5985, an active, Seyfert galaxy
                  trio of galaxies with NGC 5985

The NGC 5985, NGC 5982, and NGC 5981 or the "Draco Trio."

Redshifts c with
                    accompanying interpreted Doppler velocities
"Draco trio" redshift z values with accompanying interpreted Doppler velocities

The NGC 3516 system

NGC 3516 and QSOs in X-ray (Chu, Xhu, Hu, & Arp, 1998; http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html?nosetcookie=1)

NGC 3516 with associated QSOs indicating that the highest redshift (z) objects are most closely associated in angular separation from the larger galaxy (NGC 3516), an indicator of ejection of high redshift objects?
(Chu, Xhu, Hu, & Arp, 1998; http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html?nosetcookie=1).

Starburst galaxies: Powered by low-level baryon creation or episodes of low level baryon creation?

Starburst galaxy: Lower-level matter creation near galactic nucleus? What one observes in these photos are aging populations of stars near the core of the galaxy and rings of starburst activity spraying out beyond.

A slightly more intricate picture, analogous to the same pattern, is found in another barred spiral NGC 1398, a large nearly 135,000 light-year in diameter galaxy, located about 65 million light-years away in the direction of the constellation Fornax. This barred spiral has an outer sweep of rather tight arms with high starburst activity, an inner region of aging yellow stars, crossed by arms from an inner ring of starburst activity, in contact with the inner bar which is heavily populated by older, yellow stars.

NG 1398
NGC 1398 (also known as ESO 482-22, LEDA 13434, and IRAS 03367-2629; image from ESO; link; large image).

Could it be that there have been recurring episodes of galactic core ejective events leading to these bow shocks of starburst activity?

The M108 (NGC 3556) system (Surfboard galaxy)

An example of a rather isolated AGN of which we have quite detailed structural observations is the 'surfboard galaxy' designated as M108 or NGC 3556 in Ursa Major. This galaxy enables us to observe an AGN not in the midst of major ejection events, but still having major activity. M108 is about 14.1 Mpc (~46 Mly) in distance (by Wang et al. 2003), or 8.8 Mpc (~28.7 Mly) according to Spitzer galaxy photometry adjusted according to the Tully-Fisher relationship [Sorce et al. 2014. From Spitzer galaxy photometry to Tully�Fisher distances. MNRAS 444 (1), 527. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stu1450].  

Messier 108 (blog 2MASS survey); C. Seligman; BASS Survey database home; active galactic nucleus link).

The HST image of the main core of the M108 galaxy, along with discrete X-ray sources and contours exhibiting diffuse X-ray emission (Fig. 11, right).

M108, HST link; Wang et al. 2003; Figure 11.

M108 is part of the beautiful set of Messier objects:


Like some other active galactic systems, M108 has a variety of compact discrete X-ray sources associated with and seeming to emerge from violent processes near the AGN, along with broader-featured X-ray and radio emissions. These are introduced in Wang, Q. D., Chaves, T., & Irwin, J. A. 2003. Chandra observation of the edge-on galaxy NGC 3556 (M 108): Violent galactic disk-halo interaction revealed. ApJ 598 (2), 969. https://doi.org/10.1086/379010. This is a pattern with active galaxies which we see repeating in this and other chapters of our history.

Wang et al. 2003. Table 1 and select Figures.

In sum, after describing their observations, Wang et al. (2003) seek to explain these violent phenomena as a "galactic disk-halo interaction." However, we should note that no one has yet given an explanation. There are 83 discrete X-ray sources as well as a diffuse hot gas X-ray background around this Seyfert galaxy. These phenomena seem to fit the pattern we have been observing of an ejection type set of events, similar to what is expected and predicted in an Ambartsumian-Arp galactic cosmogony. 

The Milky Way system
Our own relatively quiescent-nucleus giant barred spiral galaxy

Conception of the Milky Way
Our barred spiral galaxy, the Milky Way
More labeled detail on a conceptual off-plane mapview of our barred spiral Milky Way Galaxy

NGC 5101, a Milky
          Way size barred spiral similar also in morphology
NGC 5078 galaxy at the lower left and at the upper right, NGC 5101, a large barred spiral similar to the Milky Way, are about 90 million light-years away but only about 800,000 light-years apart (https://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap140208.html).

  Milky Way from
          Earth on a dark night
The Milky Way from Earth on a dark night, with astrophysicist Neil de Grasse Tyson standing there (link).

Galactic Bulge (between 285 and 65 degrees galactic longitude), May 21/22, 1953;
T. E. Houck and A. D. Code Blue filter, 45 minute integration (online image).

Even the Milky Way barred spiral is not completely quiescent near its massive core, when viewed at different wavelengths, has an ejection jet and lobes of expanding gas, called 'Fermi Bubbles' on the minor axis of the galactic plane, because they were discovered by the Fermi Gamma Ray orbiting:

            Bubbles & other features
Representations of the Fermi bubble ejections from the core of our Milky Way galaxy (http://img06.deviantart.net/a717/i/2013/079/d/4/fermi_bubbles_by_banvivirie-d5ype40.jpg).

Galactic center
                  outflows of charged particles
Fermi Bubble massive outflows of charged particles from the center of our galaxy ~1 million times supernova's energy in radio energy of the microwave wavelength as observed by the CSIRO 64 m Parkes Radio Telescope (Australia).
                  Parkes Radio Telescope
CSIRO 64 m Parkes Radio Telescope (Australia) which is tasked with imaging starburst regions of our galaxy and the gas emissions of these systems, was used to generate the image adjacent.

Comment: And as discussed below, the CSIRO team have their paradigmatic hypothesis for the source of these charged particle outflows.

WMAP haze
                  in color
"Milky Way Haze" of microwave viewed in the 'first light' data packet, February 2003 from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP), showing two apparently emerging lobes of microwave radiation on the major axis of the galactic center, understood to be emitted by dust. Harvard postdoc at the time, Doug Finkbeiner was interested in these dust microwave emissions, and called them microwave 'haze.' Cosmologists are usually interested in subtracting out such 'cosmic noise' in order to view the CMB.
The COBE results which are supposed to be the first microwave map of the earliest post-'big bang' cosmos, showing traces of what would later become known as the Fermi bubbles. Stephen Hawking hyperbolically called it "the discovery of the century."

    NASA launched the Wilkinson Anisotropy Microwave Probe (WMAP) was launched in June 2001 showing results accumulated over 7 years of showing the temperature anisotropy as hotter plasma regions (yellow and red) and colder spots (blue / bluish). Although not well resolved, there seem to be definite traces of what would later become known as the Fermi bubbles. 

  Launched in May 2009 by ESA, the Planck satellite began to map the CMB very precisely with a factor 3 higher resolution than WMAP, a factor 10 higher density sensitivity, and mapping 9 frequency bands rather than the 5. Planck's first all sky survey was completed by February 2010, and Finkbeiner's 'haze' radiation from the center of the Milky Way became clearly visible as 'light grey clouds' above the galactic center line. By separating the 'haze' signal into 'a very broad range of wavelengths,' Planck took its spectrum.
First light WMAP
  At summer's end in 2009, the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (FGST) released its gamma radiation data, and Finkbeiner and colleagues assembled from the images a gamma-ray map showing the two 'Fermi bubbles' clearly defining a figure 8 perpendicular to the galactic center, extending across 50 degrees of galactic latitude and up to 40 degrees wide longitudinally. The exact cause of this gamma ray and the microwave emission bubble structures is not yet known. 

    The Planck microwave map shows the 'haze' (grey clouds) and strongest activities encoded in color descending (red, yellow, and green). ESA interpreted this as "the synchrotron emission associated with the galactic haze exhibits different characteristics from the synchrotron emission seen elsewhere in the Milky Way. The galactic haze shows what astronomers call a 'harder' spectrum: its emission does not decline as rapidly with increasing energies."

  In 2010, NASA produced an illustration and size estimate of the Fermi Bubbles color-coded to show gamma-ray emissions (pink) and marginal x-ray emissions (purple outline). Finkbeiner (now an astronomer at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, the CfA) spoke of "two gamma-ray-emitting bubbles that extend 25,000 light-years [galactic] north and south of the galactic center" (Fermi LAT or large area telescope).

Another theory by Kwong Sang Chen (Hong Kong University) postulates that as stars fall into the SMBH (~4 million solar masses) every millennium or so, part of the star is 'burped' back out in the form of high energy protons (1H+), which in colliding with gas and dust near the galactic center generate opposite, orthogonal (to the galactic plane) bubbles of high energy electrons (e-), because they can't travel far into the galactic disk plane, but can travel far out into the perpendicular spaces, forming shock boundaries defined by the release of gamma radiation photons.
  In May 2012, CfA released a model illustration of the Fermi Bubbles extending out 27,000 light-years, themselves perpendicular to the galactic plane with faint gamma-ray jets tilted at an angle of about 15 degrees, which was hypothesized to the be the tilt difference in the orientation of the central supermassive black hole (SMBH) accretion disk with respect to the galactic plane. They postulated that the jets were focused and tightly confined by the coiled magnetic field, while the broader gamma ray gas bubbles are generated by a galactic 'wind' blowing outward from the SMBH.

Finkbeiner: "These jets probably flickered on and off as the supermassive black hole alternately gulped and sipped material," Continuing, "Shoving 10,000 suns into the black hole at once would do the trick. Black holes are messy eaters, so some of that material would spew out and power the jets." The infalling influx of matter would power up the processes at the galactic SMBH core. He estimated that an infalling molecular cloud ~10,000 solar masses would be the source of the power. Comment: Of course, the matter observed is outflowing! Is the infalling matter putatively powering this ejection process mostly hidden near the center?
  The CSIRO team (03 Jan 2013) hypothesized that 'monster [bubble] outflows of charged particles' are generated by generations of intense star-formation, which after a short interval of a few hundred million years, end in massive star explosions (supernovae) near the galactic center, causing 'supersonic' outflows at ~1000 km/s, "...fast, even for astronomers" Ettore Caretti (team leader). These star-bursts of stellar formation and supernovae yield an outflow of cosmic rays and 'hot, thermal plasma with 'frozen' magnetic field lines into 'huge ridge-like features' aligned with these gaalactic magnetic fields rooted in the galactic center, inconsistent with the 'burp' hypothesis.

Comment: Such a hypothesis seems to generate more fundamental questions than it answers.

The CSIRO team believes that these starburst outflows cause the phenomena observed, which their instrument can show: "The WMAP, Planck and Fermi observations did not provide enough evidence to definitively identify the source of the radiation they detected, but the new Parkes observations do."

Question: If the starburst outflow hypothesis of the CSIRO team is correct, what is the mechanism accounting for the 'narrow waist' at the base-source of the symmetric Fermi Bubbles? CSIRO asks it this way: "What has generated the intense star formation area to begin with?"
One hypothesis is that 'eons ago' a small satellite galaxy of the Milky Way tidally merged and the merging smaller core black hole with our SMBH generated 'huge amounts of gas and dust' in a small, well-defined area or 'waist' leading to starburst stellar formation and cycling, according to Holley-Bockelmann (Vanderbilt) and Tamara Bogdanovic (Georgia Tech).

Questions: Where is the evidence for such a merger? Or the dynamic model that would have preserved such a narrow waist?

  Phenomenological summary: The 'light' dashed lines outline the symmetric gamma ray Fermi Bubbles? The 'heavier' dashed lines define the radio wavelength emissions detected by Parkes (co-extensive with the shorter microwave radio frequencies too, observed by Planck and so on (see next panel). The overlap suggests that whatever causes the one also causes the other. The radio photon spectrum are synchotron radiation (connected with strong magnetic fields).

Outflows vs bubbles: The putative central 'confined star-forming / bursting region' (postulated by CSIRO) does not emit or is 'missing' the expected the radio and gamma-ray emissions, which are apparently not there. CSIRO speculate that these have been ejected into the bubble regions, which if theoretically returned back into the postulated starburst region would add up to near the expected radiation levels.

Comment: Of course, this is a highly speculative scenario.

Planck-observed microwave axial bubbles in false color:
Plank haze
  So, the Planck satellite collaboration has discovered the spectrum of the 'haze' radiation to be characteristic synchrotron radiation, resulting from electron / positron high velocity circulation around the lines of a magnetic field. Some cosmologists have speculated about whether 'dark matter' required by the HBBC might be the cause of this radiation. "The radiation cannot be explained by the structural mechanisms in the galaxy and it cannot be radiation from supernova explosions [note the narrow waist of the Fermi double bubble structure]. I believe that this could be proof of dark matter. Otherwise, we have discovered an absolutely new and unknown physics mechanism of acceleration of particles in the Galactic Center," according to Pavel Naselsky, professor of cosmology, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen [emphasis added].

Q: Could this radiation by the local Milky Way manifestation of the explosive, ejective energy release (with possible baryonic matter creation) observed in and associated with various AGNs out in the Universe? Does it indicate a need for the 'generalization of the law of conservation' that Prof. Ambartsumian suggested decades ago?

Indebted to the somewhat outdated discussion working on ways to fit the Fermi bubble phenomena into standard cosmology (http://www.outerspacecentral.com/mw_haze_page.html).

In summary, the actual cause of these mysterious outflows, even from our relatively quiescent and ancient barred spiral Milky Way, do not have an adequate explanation as to their causes. If we don't have satisfactory causal mechanisms for our own galaxy, how much more so for the far more energetic AGNs, QSOs, Seyfert, and other often far more active and younger galactic objects which exhibit vastly more energetic ejection and jet phenomena? 

Center of our Milky Way: Optical & x-ray
Galactic nucleus of the Milky Way in X-ray: Quiescent, low-level matter origin or 'creation'?


Stars orbit MW blackhole
Supermassive black hole (SMBH) at the center of our Milky Way: Stars nearest to the blackhole exhibit a greater velocity over time (Joseph, 2010a).

Center of MWG

Center of the Milky Way Galaxy near our galactic supermassive black hole

Short lecture on the supermassive black hole (SMBH) at the center of the Milky Way Galaxy:

In May 2022, a putative radio image of the large black hole at the center of the Milky Way (Sagittarius A) was released from the Event Horizon Telescope (link): Sagit A black hole

May 2022 (https://3arabapp.com/wp-content/uploads/2022/05/1037487.jpeg).

NASA located the image on an optical image containing X-ray and IR components thus:
MW black hole & Sagitt A

NASA: "The main panel of this graphic contains X-ray data from Chandra (blue) depicting hot gas that was blown away from massive stars near the black hole. Two images of infrared light (Chandra) at different wavelengths from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope show stars (orange) and cool gas (purple). These images are seven light years across at the distance of Sgr A*. A pull-out shows the new EHT image, which is only about 1.8 x 10-5 light years across (0.000018 light years, or about 10 light minutes). (Credit: X-ray: NASA/CXC/SAO; IR: NASA/HST/STScI. Inset: Radio (EHT Collaboration)."

We continue learning more about the enigmatic, compact center point, Sgr A*, at the rather quiescent core of our Milky Way barred spiral galaxy. In addition to the compact 'ring' image generated at the center to solar system scale, compared with the highly AGN center of M87 in the Virgo cluster, as well as a 20 year time lapse of the unstable stellar orbits about the Sgr A* compact object. 

Molecular Hydrogen clouds near Sgr A*

Image (link) in radio wavelengths taken by Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), a radio interferometer of 66 radio telescopes in the Atacama Desert, northern Chile.

Galactic center stellar orbits

2013 detection of unusually bright X-ray flare from Sgr A*:

Soft gamma ray neutron star (magnetar) near Sgr A*:

Supernova remnant ejecta with heavier elements near Sgr A*

Supernova remnant ejecta with heavier elements near Sgr A*

Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array, also named Explorer 93 and SMEX-11
(NuSTAR) image of a massive X-ray flare at Sgr A*.

(Sgr A link).

One of the other surprising elements centered on the center of our Milky Way is the Galactic Center GeV Excess (GCE) of gamma radiation, of cause of which no well-understood process is known yet.

Gamma ray luminosity at 1 GeV

Gamma ray luminosity at >10 GeV

(GCE link).

In June 2023, Yusuf-Zadeh et al. 2023. The population of the Galactic Center Filaments: Position angle distribution reveals a degree-scale collimated outflow from Sgr A* along the galactic plane. ApJ Letters 949. https://doi.org/10.3847/2041-8213/acd54b. The outflow situation is more complicated than one might expect. Position angle (PA) in degrees and filament length divisions are somewhat arbitrary, because as we shall see Yusuf-Zadeh and colleagues' attempts to simplify their Sgr A* ejection model fails to take into account the full explosive chaotic outspray from the Galactic center, as we shall see.

Excluding supernova remnants (SNRs) and molecular HII clouds (green circles), we have an explosive-appearing set of filaments.

The only reason Yusuf-Zadeh et al. arrive at a PA Gaussian distribution curve is because they arbitrarily limit the length to be > 66".

If one compares the (c) panel of this figure 6 with the final panel of Figure 2, one immediately sees visually that the attempt to simplify the actuality
into a model 

Figure 7c,

Figure 7d.

When even visually compared with the data, the over-simplified model in Figure 8 shows the poverty of the standard approach to understanding the explosvie energetic phenomena occurring near compact galactic cores or AGNs.

Discussion. Even a now quiescent and average barred spiral galaxy like the Milky Way has a massive compact 'black hole' at its heart, and dual polar jets emerging, from a center of activity causally yet to be well-characterized, as well as other complicated ejection outflow phenomena.
The causal mechanisms for even far more energetic and vast galactic ejection and jet phenomena are also yet to be explained. This entails more reasons to explore cosmogonies and cosmologies beyond the New Ptolemaic System paradigm.

In the next chapter, we continue to explore these ejection-jet phenomena and the surprising alignment of galactic objects and even galactic clusters with the the axes of these ejection features, and the possible creation processes happening at the centers of these apparently-originating AGNs, as revealed by multi-GeV energy cosmic rays.