Logarythmic view

A logarithmic scale photo-artistic view collage (by Pablo Carlos Budassi) of what we think we know about the Universe with our still human Earthling-centric perspectival conception: At the center, our Earth's solar system, inner and outer planets, the Kuiper belt of dwarf planets (one e.g., Pluto), the Oort cloud of Sun-held comets, the nearest start Alpha Centauri, the Perseus Arm of our Milky Way barred-spiral galaxy where is the world of our nighttime stars, the near and large Andromeda galaxy, and beyond the world of galaxies stretching away toward the postulated cosmic web of primordial structure-formation, the (red) cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation, and finally the mysterious, egg-like hard edge, the Big Bang.
Cosmology — A brief History & the New Ptolemaic system

The old Ptolemaic system (painted here by Dutch-German cartographer and cosmographer, Andreas Cellarius (c 1596-1665): Earth at the center of the orderly cosmos of the spheres of the planets, the zodiac, and Judeo-Christian iconography.

(Images: link: link; link).



To explain and predict planetary retrograde motion, and still have Earth the center, and Platonic forms, perfect circles or epicycles were added as free parameters....



Ockham's Razor (
Novacula Occami) did not originate with, but was used effectively in logic by English Franciscan friar William of Ockam (c1287-1347): Most famously formulated as this statement of a Lex Parsimoniae (law of parsimony) "Entia non sunt multiplicanda praeter necessitatem," i.e., 'Entities must not be multiplied beyond necessity' (link).
An admittedly perspectival representation of cosmic lookback time toward the CMB (COBE image) from Earth, the farthest we can supposedly see toward the Big Bang: The New Ptolemaic system.
Earth centered Big Bang
With enough ad hoc free parameters, or epicycles, one can 'model' anything: In the amusing case below (link; cf. animations), we could instead find our desired ratio (π) by taking any circle and dividing its measured circumference (C) by its measured diameter (d).

A modern version of Occam's Razor: The theoretical model with the fewest ad hoc assumptions, hypotheses, and free / adjustable parameters, is more likely to be scientifically testable, and thus informative about Nature or the Universe. This is not as assertive as claiming, "more likely to be true," but more informative.

Do either the Old or the New Ptolemaic systems pass that standard? That comparative question underlies our discussion here. For the New Ptolemic system, one may set ~10 general epicycles and more advanced epicycles, using Ed Wright's (UCLA) 'equation of state' for the Big Bang. Appropriately one may examine the behavior of the 'baryonic acoustic oscillations' in the CMB and the 'fact' of the 'initial condition' in the epicycles of the Big Bang from cosmologist-apologist Fr. Adam D. Hincks, S.J., Ph.D., citing the CAMB (Code for Anisotropies in the Microwave Background), and linked by a Dr. Angela Collier who asserts >20[?] times that (nonbaryonic) 'dark matter is not a theory' but observations, ignoring how theory-laden the claims are in these Big Bang epicycles. The religious-dogmatic impetus for maintaining these epicycles shows.
The Ptolemaic cosmology was a tidy, orderly, (Platonic) Earth-centered cosmology, which may be emblematic of how we continue to pursue cosmology. There is a remarkable mental-schematic similarity in our conceptions of what we think we understand when we look out at the Universe, seemingly inescapably putting ourselves at its conceptual, if no longer, its spatial-temporal center. Our human self-referentiality is seen in speculations such as the "anthropic principle" to the 'finely-tuned' ad hoc features to make our models work. It has been observed that science advances when our current scientific models or paradigms at any given time encounter the arising of data unexpected indicating anomalies of explanatory discomfiture for the contemporary model. Adjustable parameters (epicycles) tend to be added to accommodate these anomalous data, until they become so numerous that there is a crisis for the paradigm, and a new model is proposed, which hopefully has fewer ad hoc features, and is better able to explain the extant data (Thomas Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, 1962, 1970, 2nd ed.).

In this website, we examine whether the current scientific model, in this case contemporary established cosmology, is encountering enough anomalous data to provoke a paradigm-shaking crisis such as happened in the 17th century, and before that in the Ionian Enlightenment. Since it is cosmology (models of the Universe), it is inevitable that such queries raise the largest questions of all.


Humans have always been restless searchers for comprehension, meaning, and for making sense of it all. From where do we come? To where are we going? How and Why is the immense World in which we find ourselves the way it is? "What is our future?" "Are we alone?" What is the meaning of our lives in a vast Universe?

"There may be wisdom; there may be power; somewhere across space great instruments, handled by strange, manipulative organs, may stare vainly at our floating cloud wrack, their owners yearning as we yearn. Nevertheless, in the nature of life and in the principles of evolution we have had our answer. Of men elsewhere, and beyond, there will be none forever" (Loren Eiseley, 1946, 1957. The Immense Journey. New York: Vintage, Random House; p. 162;
image link).
Searcher (modern)
The New Ptolemaic System:
How the Hot Big Bang theory became ascendant in Modern Cosmology

Contemporary cosmology and the free inquiry legacy of the Enlightenment


A project of the Enlightenment Legacy Net / Space: https://enlightenmentlegacy.net/; https://enlightenmentlegacy.space/.
URL: https://www.enlightenmentlegacy.net/cosmos/; .https://www.enlightenmentlegacy.space/cosmos//.

    Abstract. This website (in the links below) is a brief telling of the colorful story of the struggle to shape cosmology from before the 20th century and into the 21st. Starting with primitive cosmologies and scanning the sweep of history in cosmology leading up to the 21st century, we summarize data accumulating over the three-quarters of a century suggesting that the Universe may be far vaster, far older (than ~13.8 billion years, Ga for Giga-annua or Gya for billion years ago), and very different than pictured in the conventional and inflationary, concordance Hot Big Bang Cosmology (HBBC), and note the partially-successful battle to secure for these data a fair hearing in peer-reviewed literature. The tone was set mid-century when there was a "war of the world-views" between the classic Hot Big Bang Cosmology and the Classic Steady State Cosmology (CSSC). That battle didn't end the way it has been popularly told, and there are surprises and lessons in that saga which we will draw upon—issues which shape our whole modern human approach to cosmology-making. As more data has come in, and more contradictions have arisen, a number of ad hoc hypotheses have been added to rescue the HBBC, accommodate and explain details in the cosmic microwave background (CMB, officially discovered in 1965, but actually discovered in the 1930s). There have been missed opportunities, which became sociological factors in the consideration of cosmological models. Two prominent examples include (a) The claims by Martin Ryle starting just before 1960 that radio source counts in the growing Cambridge catalogs ruled out Steady State cosmologies, when statistical tests showed that his group cohorts as they grew were actually approaching the CSSC predicted values, and had in fact not done so at all even as of 1988, years after a Nobel prize had been given for his non-conclusive claims. (b) The claim after 1965 that the CMB blackbody radiation confirmed the Big Bang and disconfirmed the Steady State cosmologies was in fact mistaken, although even the CSSC advocates even did not notice it then. In fact, the classic Steady State cosmologies actually predicted the CMB radiation and its specific observed temperature far more precisely than any non-ad hoc adjusted Big Bang model has then or since. Missing these two opportunities and other opportunities we will discuss, cosmology became increasingly closed paradigmatically after 1970, and open dialogue languished, despite growing evidences that the dominant paradigm is deeply flawed.

    Since then, there have been major developments in paradigm-busting alternative cosmologies* published in the scientific literature, including within the broad tradition and spirit of the CSSC. The HBBC has also changed much, including with the addition of inflationary hypotheses since 1980. The current version of the HBBC, the
ΛCDM (lambda expansion acceleration parameter, cold 'dark matter') concordance model of the Big Bang has been 'precision'-adjusted with many added parameters, invisible entities, to attempt to fit the CMB data, the galactic redshifts distance-ladder, and the modeling of many simulations of the origin of structure in the Universe. These parameter-fittings are suspiciously like the circle-upon-circle epicycles which made the old geocentric Ptolemaic system work, leading one to suspect that the ΛCDM Concordance version of the HBBC might have become the New Ptolemaic system. In this treatment, we use the terms Universe to refer to the reality in which we exist, and cosmos and cosmologies to refer to our human attempts at ordered conceptions and models of that reality, whether among the 20th and 21st century astronomers and cosmologists, or among the Paleolithic skywatchers. Differentiating these is to remind us not to mistake the "grandeur" and "elegance" of our cosmologies, for the grandeur and elegance of the Universe. 

    In this review of the history and prehistory of human cosmology-making, we also explore in summary the relation of human cosmos-making with human meaning-making in the search for the numinous, for agents with intent, spirits and gods in Nature, and since the Agricultural Revolution in the hierarchies of societies. It is curious but not surprising that many western (Judeo-Christian) religious apologetic uses of the HBBC have arisen, claiming corroboration of divine fiat creation (somewhat paralleling the young Earth creationists, YEC of Earth planetary geology) these apologists (despite sometimes being chided by astronomers and cosmologists) have embraced a kind of 'finely-tuned' by God 'young universe cosmology' (YUC, i.e., ~13.8 Ga). Aside from uses by religious fundamentalism, a glaring example is the modern revival by some evangelical Christians of the Islamic 'Kalam cosmological argument' (which shares some kinship with the Aristotelian-Aquinean medieval 'proofs for God') along with biblical statements (out of exegetical context) as they have applied them to 20th century extrapolations of a Big Bang singularity (as far as general relativity goes). Another kindred set of examples are the apologetic claims in some quarters in Judaism following searches for parallels between modern cosmology / modern physics and statements in Tanakh and Kabbalah texts. We critique the use of arguments based on the so-called "fine-tuning" of the "big bang" applied apologetically in the agency and existence of God debate, noting that a number of the so-called "fine-tuning" HBBC 'evidences' cited to support 'design' and 'purpose' in the cosmos, are actually very human "fine-tuning" artifacts of ad hoc attempts to make the HBBC workable at all. We relate this ongoing discussion to the ongoing Copernican legacy of the Enlightenment in their God debates, and to the search for understanding in what may be an infinite and eternal, or indefinitely old Universe. Following some of the most influential and critical of Enlightenment thinkers, we spare dogmatic assertions about the nature of the divine or of ultimate reality. It is suggestive enough that many of the insightful thinkers then, centuries before and today have glimpsed that the nature of God or the Ultimate is somehow intimately connected with the Nature of the Universe.

    In contemporary science, the residual, persisting effect of established institutional orthodoxies and the resulting sociology of scientific paradigms upon modern cosmology (cf. Lopez-Corredoira, 2014) is a living cautionary tale for all seekers of truth, religious or non-religious. A critical free inquiry in the best tradition of the Enlightenment is incompatible with too close an alliance of specific philosophical-theological beliefs with any particular cosmological model. And we will review the successes as well as the shortcomings of the prevailing cosmology. However, we as humans simply know far less than we think we do.

   This website is an ephemeral and never complete scrapbook of data, references, and musings of an observer apparently late in the long span of human prehistory / history since anatomically modern humans first explored Earth and caught their early glimpses and created their early views of the Universe over 300,000 years ago—for we have been a cosmos-making and thus a meaning-making species. In a time when narrow religio-political-national-class and other tribalisms, hatreds, conflicts abound, and when multinational corporate and consumerist greed afflict and endanger our small planet, this is a tiny flickering tribute to the candle light of free-thought, the truth seeking spirit of the Enlightenment, and hopefully a small part of keeping that spirit flowing and the candle lit. An ongoing exploration of our outer world, requires us to examine our inner world of conceptions also. This journey of reviewing our ongoing history of cosmology-making is also a journey through our story as humankind being children of and yet sojourners in the Universe.

    Sometimes, developments in cosmology and cosmology-making take place in millennia and centuries (chapter I), sometimes in decades as during the controversies in cosmology in the mid-to-later 20th century (chapter III), and sometimes they take mere days and months as described in the new chapter IV (mid-2022 - present). The James Webb Space Telescope is empirically upending various foundations of the prevailing cosmological model of the HBBC in its current ΛCDM rendition. This is a Kuhnian paradigm-shifting time in cosmology. This brings us to our recently added Chapter IV. The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) discoveries are rocking the foundations of the ΛCDM HBB Cosmology (first publicly published on 02 July 2023, just 10 days before the 1st anniversary of JWST Day 1: 12 July 2022).

Also new is our weaving in throughout the website in both bibliography and chapters of the influential welter of books aimed at both specialist and a general informed audiences of readers, attempting to influence the community, the public, and overall perception and acceptance of cosmological models, including popular works by Georges Lemaitre, George Gamow, Sir Fred Hoyle, Sir Hermann Bondi, Steven Weinberg, Robert Jastrow, Sir Steven Hawking, Paul Davies, John Barrow / Frank Tipler, Helge Kragh, Sir Roger Penrose, Lawrence Krause, Sir Martin Rees, Rodney Holder, Alistair McGrath, Keith Ward, Victor Stenger, and many others. This trend shows the degree to which the conflicts over cosmology are fought in the court of public persuasion.

Also, forthcoming there will be a new chapter XI, "On the 'dwarf galaxy problem" which deal with the 'dwarf galaxy problem' and the implications for modeling galactic cosmogony. These data and discussions are important for cosmological models

    Because nothing takes the place of seeing, the site is illustrated not only with photos, diagrams, and representations of archaeological artifacts, old manuscripts, sculptures, traditions, models, but also photographic plates from the early days of astronomy and the magnificent images from modern optical observatories, radio telescopes / interferometers, and of course, the Hubble Space Telescope, the Chandra X-ray Observatory, the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) on the Spitzer Space Telescope, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), the Advanced Camera for Survey (ACS),
the Infrared Camera for Multi-object Spectrometer (NICMOS), and of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation with the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) and other experiments, including the Planck CMB map, as well as now, the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), and more.

First set of images of the fully operational JWST, tasked with "unfolding the infrared universe" (11 July 2022; https://www.nasa.gov/webbfirstimages), as well as the almost immediately renewed controversy over whether the Big Bang cosmology can accommodate some of these very deep sky galaxy data. The main JWST home website and its frequently updated image gallery are available: More JWST images will be rotated through in keeping with themes and discoveries.

Juxtaposed images of an Abell cluster of galaxies, SMACS-0723, ~4 billion light-years (Gly) away, (Hubble Space Telescope or HST on Left, and James Webb Space Telescope  or JWST on Right).


Part of the Carina Nebula, NGC 3324: A star forming region (longest nebular protrusions are about 7 light-years long).

NGC 7317, NGC 7318A / 7318B, NGC 7319, and NGC 7320, or Stephan's Quintet of galaxies (also known as Hickson Compact Group 92; HCG 92). More about this enigmatic group in the pages linked below.


NGC 3132, Southern Ring Nebula ~2,500 light-years distant, a planetary nebula of gas and dust shed away by a dying star (<5 solar masses), which after swelling into a red giant, has blown away the shells of gas and dust, leaving a white dwarf, for the first time revealed as swaddled in dust (taken by two JWST cameras). Note the distant galaxy, edge-on at about 10 o'clock.



Representation of a spectrum (taken by JWST) indicating the presence of an H2O absorption spectrum on a hot gas giant planet (~0.48 Jupiter masses) called WASP 96b (found in 2013 by the Wide Angle Search for Planets) which is only
0.0453 AU (astronomical units, ~93 million miles, Sun-Earth distance) from its star, WASP 92, with an orbital period of only about 3.4 days (link).
 


Imagery will be found where relevant in the following pages.


*Brief introductions to the observational or empirical Machian Cosmology of Halton Arp (EMC) and the Quasi-Steady State Cosmology (QSSC) of Hoyle, Burbidge, and Narlikar (since 1992, 1993), and including an updated version of the Classic Steady State Cosmologies (CSSC) of Hoyle, Bondi, and Gold are included, along with the burst of creative activity on C-field variations of the CSSC by Hoyle & Narlikar during the 1960s, as well as references to other alternative cosmological models, especially the Cyclic Non-Singular Bounce Cosmologies (CBC) of Ijjas, Steinhardt, et al., as well as Conformal Cyclic Cosmology (CCC) of Penrose et al., CPT symmetry cosmologies of Turok et al., the older plasma cosmologies of Alven, Lerner, and others, and various emerging forays into possible "quantum gravity" non-singular models, where the embarrassment of singularities are absent. Our criterion for inclusion in this discussion is generally but not exclusively publication in the peer-reviewed literature, including the semi-reviewed preprint services, and my own individual interest in any model as making testable predictions. The point is to not to proclaim a new paradigmatic cosmology, but open the doors of consideration enough to think both inside of, outside of, and beyond the New Ptolemaic paradigm of the HBB Cosmology of the ΛCDM hypothesis


Hipparchus observing the skies in the 2nd century BCE
(based on a 19th century engraving, from Wilson, 1980).
James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) in the 21st century CE
JWST
JWST (image; Webb Telescope site: https://webbtelescope.org/; STScI JWST site: https://www.stsci.edu/jwst; NASA JWST site progress on the instruments: https://www.jwst.nasa.gov/).


Table of Contents
All links are live, which are not marked as "temporarily unavailable...."
I. Mythos to Cosmos: World-views from the Paleolithic through the Copernican Revolution to Willem de Sitter (>3 Mya to early 20th century).

II. The Enlightenment: Ontology of the divine (mid-17th - 18th centuries). [Temporarily unavailable during revision-expansion]

III. The Hubble Relation and the expanding Universe: "The War of the World-Views" and the slide toward a new Ptolemaic system? (1929-2013). [Temporarily unavailable during revision-expansion]

IV. The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) discoveries are rocking the foundations of the ΛCDM HBB Cosmology [first publicly published on 02 July 2023, just 10 days before the 1st anniversary of JWST Day 1: 12 July 2022].

V. The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation: From Where and Whence? "As far as the eye can see?" [Temporarily unavailable during revision-expansion] In this chapter, post-1980 Inflationary HBB cosmologies and counter-inflationary alternative HBB cosmologies such as conformal cyclic cosmology (CCC), cyclic bouncing cosmology (CBC), and charge, parity, & time reversal symmetry (CPT) cosmology will be explored, as well as predictions of non-HBBC cosmologies. (See also Select Bibliography and Resources below).

VI. Unexpected large-scale Structures & Violations of Homogeneity and Isotropy.

VII. Unexpected galactic Redshifts. 

VIII. Radiogalaxies: Strange powerhouses of intergalactic space-time. 

IX. Vast jets and galactic ejection phenomena: Mass origin-ejection? [Temporarily unavailable during revision-expansion]

X. Multiple galactic alignments: Mass ejections? [Temporarily unavailable during revision-expansion]

XI. On the 'dwarf galaxy problem' [Temporarily unavailable]

XII. Infinite Universe at large: A new Copernican Revolution in time & space? [Temporarily unavailable during revision-expansion]

XIII. Worlds aplenty: Evolution of Stellar Planetary Systems & the cosmic Origins of Life [Temporarily unavailable during revision-expansion]

XIV. Cosmic ponderings: What does it all mean? [Temporarily unavailable during revision-expansion]



The "Overview Effect": Seeing Earth from out there!

Apollo 8 astronaut Bill Anders' famous shot as it actually appeared to the astronauts on 24 December 1968.

The photo, flipped in a more traditional Earth-friendly horizontal orientation by NASA technicians, captured the imagination of the world as "Earthrise." Anders says this orientation (above) of the image is the most faithful to what the astronauts actually perceived and saw.

Seattle Times, Wednesday, December 5, 2012

Actual
                  cosmic earthrise
"At the Heritage Flight Museum in Bellingham with his 'Earthrise' photo, former astronaut Bill Anders says of the moon, 249,000 miles away, 'It's a long ways off.' Anders and his crew were the first humans to travel to another planet, an experience he says exploded his views on humanity and traditional religion. 'We think we're special,' he says. 'We're not.'" (http://seattletimes.com/ABPub/zoom/html/2019836722.html).

Now that humans have been to space, they have experienced the "Overview Effect" (https://medium.com/starts-with-a-bang/william-shatner-cried-upon-returning-from-space-the-overview-effect-explains-why-1f3415a51815).

[Excerpts from the Times story] . . . .

"Christmas Eve [1968] television broadcast. While beaming grainy, close-up images of the lunar surface to an audience estimated at a billion people, the crew took turns reading the first 10 verses of the book of Genesis. Anders spoke first:

'In the beginning, God created the heavens and the earth. And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters. And God said, Let there be light.'

. . . Some viewers accepted it as it was intended, as a tribute to the human creation story common to many cultural and religious traditions on Earth. . . . Borman, the flight commander, had been advised to think of something memorable to say on that occasion. He chose Genesis more for its poetry than piety, Anders says. The message was meant to be universal.

Ironically, Anders' six days in space forever altered his own view of his place in the universe. Raised a Catholic, Anders says he held generally to a traditional Christian viewpoint of the Earth being created by a God who fashioned Earthlings in his own image.

The view from space changed everything.

"When I looked back and saw that tiny Earth, it snapped my world view," Anders says. "Here we are, on kind of a physically inconsequential planet, going around a not particularly significant star, going around a galaxy of billions of stars that's not a particularly significant galaxy - in a universe where there's billions and billions of galaxies."

'Are we really that special? I don't think so.'

. . . .

The photo showed Earthlings, for the first time, just how fragile and beautiful their planet appeared from afar. It became the symbol of the first Earth Day in 1970 and is given credit for helping propel the environmental movement itself something Anders embraces.

'I've always used the phrase, ironic,' Anders says. 'We came all this way to discover the moon. And what we really did discover is Earth.'

. . . ."
(http://seattletimes.com/html/pacificnw/2019783643_pacificpanders09.html).
Desiderata

(To give feedback, e-mail)

Lee F Greer, Ph.D.
info@enlightenmentlegacy.net
/ info@enlightenmentlegacy.space
(c) 1998-2023


A few leading space age instruments & some news items:
The James Webb Space Telescope
JWST
JWST (image; Webb Telescope site: https://webbtelescope.org/; STScI JWST site: https://www.stsci.edu/jwst; NASA JWST site progress on the instruments: https://www.jwst.nasa.gov/).
Temporary links on the latest results from our leading optical observatory, the JWST, which are of significance in testing cosmologies:
  • James Webb Space Telescope gallery:
  • Links to papers on arXiv and elsewhere with their relevance to testing cosmological models
  • Since the JWST has become operational, results of cosmological relevance have been coming in quickly enough to where it takes work to integrate it into the history. This seems to be a possible time of paradigm change in cosmology.

The Hubble Space Telescope
(http://oposite.stsci.edu/
image cited from http://hubblesite.org/)

Orbiting X-ray observatory, Chandra (http://chandra.harvard.edu)
Spitzer Space Telescope (IR)
The Spitzer Space Telescope
(detecting light in the infrared or IR spectral range, http://www.spitzer.caltech.edu/about/index.shtml).
JWST compared with the Spitzer (May 2022)
Spitzer v JWST
(Link).
Future of optical space telescopes
Future space telescopes
Future space telescopes proposed apertures (link).
Webb Telescope EM spectral window
JWST EM window
(Link).
James Webb 'first light' alignment
JWST 'first light'
JWST first light.
James Webb Space Telescope from Earth!
JWST from Earth!
JWST from Earth (24 Jan 2022: https://www.universetoday.com/154282/want-to-know-what-james-webb-looks-like-in-powerful-earth-telescopes-prepare-to-be-underwhelmed/).
  Recently launched and first images (link) from first light of the James Webb Space Telescope (https://www.stsci.edu/jwst/; NASA: https://www.jwst.nasa.gov/); JWST homepage: https://webbtelescope.org with its image gallery: https://webbtelescope.org/resource-gallery/images.

 



Select Bibliography & Resources

A selection of the papers / sources cited here and throughout this website itself (updated December 2023): These tend to be papers and resources of central significance or some interest to the subject of cosmology (and for some), the reason for citation may become clear later in the website, where a lot more specific papers and their references are embedded on the relevant pages / chapters (some republished, some in preparation). {Comments are included with some works or resources, and added from time to time, sometimes as new references are added, all in the service of telling the story. Such a bibliography can never be complete}.

Aarseth, S. 1985. Direct N-body calculations in IAU Symposium 113 on Dynamics of Star Clusters. Eds. J. Goodman and P. Hut. Reidel, 251.

Agacy, R. L. & McCrea, W. H. 1961. A transformation of the de Sitter metric and the law of creation of matter. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (MNRAS), 123, 383-390. http://adsabs.harvard.edu//full/seri/MNRAS/0123//0000383.000.html.

AGNs (active galactic nuclei), a literature list on the history of interpretation of AGNs: https://ned.ipac.caltech.edu/level5/Sept04/Shields/Shields_refs.html.

Alternate Cosmology Group (ACG). 2004-present. http://www.cosmology.info/. Published "An Open Letter to the Scientific Community" (New Scientist, 22 May 2004: http://cosmologystatement.org/.

Albrecht, A. 1999. Reply to 'A different approach to cosmology.' Physics Today 52 (4), 44. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.882626.

Alpher, R. A. & Herman, R. 1948. Evolution of the Universe. Nature 162, 774. https://doi.org/10.1038/162774b0.

Ambartsumian, V. A. 1954. On the origin of stars. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1954LIACo...5..293A.

____. 1958. Solvay Conference on Structure and Evolution of the Universe. Brussels, Belgium: R. Stoops; p. 241.

____. 1961. Instability in systems of galaxies. A. J. 66, 536. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/108460.

Aratos of Soli, Άρατος ο Σολεύς. c315/310 BCE - 240 BCE. Φαινόμενα, Phaenomena. https://www.theoi.com/Text/AratusPhaenomena.html. Callimachus, Hymns and Epigrams. Lycophron. Aratus. Translated by Mair, A. W. & G. R. Loeb. 1921. Classical Library Volume 129. London: William Heinemann. Aratos' work transmitted the ancient constellations of the Greeks as systematized by Eudoxes, including constellations inherited from the Sumerians / Mesopotamians and Egyptians. Interestingly, the artistic-scientific spirit of Aratos is revealed in that he takes no cognizance in any of his known works of ancient Greek astrology. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aratus.

Armstrong K. 1993. A History of God: The 4000-year Quest of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.  New York, NY: Alfred Knopf (1994).

Arnett, D. & Wallerstein, G. 2009. αβγ, Hoyle, and the history of nucleosynthesis. Letter. Physics Today 62 (5), 10. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.3141922.

Arp. H. C. 1956. Novae in the Andromeda galaxy. AJ 61, 15. https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1956AJ.....61...15A/abstract.

____. 1965. Structure and Evolution of Galaxies, Proc. 13th Conf. on Physics, University of Brussels. New York, NY: Wiley Interscience.

____. 1966. Atlas of Peculiar Galaxies. California Institute of Technology: Pasadena, CA. http://members.aol.com/arpgalaxy/.

____. 1968. Lines of galaxies from radio sources. Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 80 (473), 129. https://doi.org/10.1086/128602.

____. 1987. Quasars, Redshifts, and Controversies. Berkeley, CA: Interstellar Media. https://archive.org/details/quasarsredshifts0000arph.

____. 1997. Concentration of quasars around the active extragalactic object 3C 345. Astronomy and Astrophysics 327, 479. http://adsabs.harvard.edu//full/seri/A+A../0327//0000479.000.html.

____. 1997. Quasar creation and evolution into galaxies. Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy 18, 393. http://adsbit.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-iarticle_query?1997JApA...18..393A.

____. 1998a. The origin of companion galaxies. ApJ 496 (2), 661. https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1086/305412.

____. 1998b. Seeing Red: Redshifts, Cosmology, and Academic Science. Montreal, Canada: Apeiron Press. 306 pp. https://archive.org/details/halton-arp-seeing-red-red-shift-cosmology-and-academic-science.

____. 2001a. The surroundings of disturbed, active galaxies. ApJ 549 (2), 780. https://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0006422; IOP journal article with figures: https://doi.org/10.1086/319454.

____. 2001b. Origins of quasars and galaxy clusters. https://doi.org/10.48550/arXiv.astro-ph/0105325. cf. https://www.haltonarp.com/articles/origins_of_quasars_and_galaxy_clusters.

____. 2003. Catalogue of Discordant Redshift Associations. Montreal, Canada: Apeiron, C. Roy Keys. 239 pp. https://b-ok.cc/book/687350/8bea00

____. 2005. Observational cosmology: From high redshift galaxies to the blue Pacific. Progress in Physics 3, 3-6. http://www.haltonarp.com/articles/pdf/pp-03-01.pdf.

Arp, H. C., Burbidge, G., Hoyle, F., Narlikar, J. V., & Wickramasinghe, N. C. 1990. The extragalactic Universe: an alternative view. Nature 346, 807. https://doi.org/10.1038/346807a0.

____. 1992. Big Bang contd.... [Correspondence: Reply to Peebles et al. 1991]. Nature 357 (6376), 287. https://doi.org/10.1038/357287b0.

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Arp, H., Burbidge, E. M., Chu, Y., Flesch, E., Patat, F., Rupprecht, G. 2002. NGC 3628: Ejection activity associated with quasars. Finally published in 2004 in Astronomy and Astrophysics. http://arXiv.org/PS_cache/astro-ph/pdf/0206/0206411.pdf.

Arp, H., Burbidge, E. M., & Burbidge, G. 2004. The double radio source 3C343.1: A galaxy-QSO pair with very different redshifts. https://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0401007. Astronomy and Astrophysics 414, L37. https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361:20031745.

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Bakhos, J. 2022. Chasing Oumuamua: An apology for a cyclic gravity and cosmology, consistent with an adaptation of general relativity. https://vixra.org/abs/2203.0032, in it's 4th version: https://vixra.org/pdf/2203.0032v4.pdf. Bakhos proposes an intriguing non-HBB cosmology, the Cyclic Gravity and Cosmology (CGC), which uses a modification of general relativity (as other advanced cosmologies have) and which is consistent with the advancing data, including the ongoing deep results from the JWST. See his website, blog, and podcasts / links: The Taurus Report: https://taurusreport.com/. He also recommends the popular summary in Quantamagazine on "Big Bounce simulations challenge the Big Bang."

Balazs, L. G., Bagoly, Z., Hakkila, J. E., Horvath, I., Kobori, J., Racz, I., L. Toth, V. 2015. A giant ring-like structure at 0.78 < z < 0.86 displayed by GRBs. MNRAS 452 (3), 2236. https://arxiv.org/abs/1507.00675; https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stv1421.

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Bali, R. & Kumawat, M. 2011. Cosmological models with variable G in C-field cosmology. Int J Theor Phys 50, 27. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10773-010-0489-9. Building on the work of Hoyle & Narlikar (1964; 1971; &c.), this paper illustrates how in an FLRW cosmos, under certain constraints, C-field cosmology yields an accelerating Universe, without an horizon, and they claim, matching astronomical observations.

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The BICEPS / Keck Observations of the cosmic background radiation (CMB) and their publications: http://bicepkeck.org/index.html. Discussions in the yet-to-be-posted chapter IV, "The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation: From Where and Whence?"

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Bondi, H. & Weston-Smith, M. (eds.). 1998. The Universe Unfolding. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Twenty prominent, contemporary astronomers lecture on issues and trends astronomical during the previous two decades before the turn of the millennium, within this anthology.

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____. 1999. QSOs and Galaxies: The X-ray Connection. Highlights in X-Ray Astronomy: International Symposium in Honour of Joachim Trumper's 65th Birthday, June 17-19, 1998 (ed. Bernd Aschenbach & Michael J. Freyberg) Garching, Germany: Max-Planck-Institut fur extraterrestrische Physik. MPE report, No. 272, 234. http://adsabs.harvard.edu//full/conf/hxra./1999//0000234.000.html; https://d-nb.info/958519773/04.

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Burbidge, E. M. & Burbidge. G. 1963. Condensations in the intergalactic medium. ApJ 138, 873B. https://articles.adsabs.harvard.edu/pdf/1963ApJ...138..873B. Intergalactic condensation cosmogony in the CSSC. 

Burbidge, E. M., & Burbidge, G. 1996. Ejection of Matter and Energy from NGC 4258. http://arXiv.org/PS_cache/astro-ph/pdf/9611/9611013.pdf.

Burbidge, E. Margaret, Burbidge, Geoffrey, Fowler, William A., & Hoyle, Fred. {B2FH} 1957. Synthesis of the elements in stars. Reviews of Modern Physics 29, 547. https://doi.org/10.1103/RevModPhys.29.547

Burbidge, E. Margaret, Burbidge, Geoffrey, Arp, Halton C., Zibetti, Stefano. 2003. QSOs Associated with M82. The Astrophysical Journal 591 (2), 690. http://arXiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/0303625.

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Burbidge, G. & Hewitt, A. 1993. A revised & updated catalog of Quasi-Stellar Objects. The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 87, 451. https://articles.adsabs.harvard.edu/pdf/1993ApJS...87..451H.

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Burbidge, G., Hoyle, F., & Narlikar, J. 1999. A different approach to cosmology: From a static universe through the big bang towards reality. Physics Today 53 (12), 38. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1341928.

Burbidge, G., Hoyle, F. & Schneider, P. 1997. Very close pairs of quasi-stellar objects. Astronomy and Astrophysics 320, 8. Release: https://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/9601031

Burbidge, G. & Napier, N. W. 2001. The distribution of redshifts in new samples of Quasi-stellar Objects. The Astronomical Journal 121 (1), 21-30. http://arXiv.org/PS_cache/astro-ph/pdf/0008/0008026.pdf; http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/AJ/journal/issues/v121n1/200276/200276.html.

Calder, N. 1969. Violent Universe: An eyewitness account of the New Astronomy. New York, NY: Viking Press. Reflects the ferment of the '60s in cosmology while leaning toward the Big Bang, especially a closed, perhaps cyclical version. This book was a companion to the 5 part, ~2.5 hour BBC documentary broadcast in 1969 called "The Violent Universe" (now in black and white on YouTube) which we discuss in the to-be-republished section, "The Hubble Relation and the expanding Universe: 'The War of the World-Views' and the slide toward a new Ptolemaic system?" (Also linked above in the Table of Contents). Argues that the 1960s is a ferment of progress driven by controversy in Astronomy as happened to Physics in the 1930s-40s, and as with Biology with DNA and macromolecules in the 1950s, and accelerating since into the Age of Genomics in the late 1990s and the 21st century.

Canuto, O., & Narlikar, J. V. 1980. The diffuse Gamma-ray Background in the Hoyle-Narlikar Cosmology. Astron. Astrophys. 92, 26. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1980A%26A....92...26C

Centre de Donnees Astronomiques de Strasbourg: Strasbourg Astronomical Data Center. https://cds.unistra.fr/; SIMBAD Astronomical Database - CDS (Strasbourg): https://simbad.cds.unistra.fr/simbad/; VizieR published astronomical catalogues: https://vizier.cds.unistra.fr/index.gml; Aladin Sky Atlas: https://aladin.cds.unistra.fr/aladin.gml. This major European astronomical database hub, includes links to SIMBAD, VizieR, and the Aladin Sky Atlas.

Chandra X-ray Observatory Center: http://chandra.harvard.edu.

Charge, Parity, and Time reversal (CPT) Symmetry Cosmology: Although there were some precursor developments CPT symmetry cosmology was proposed in 2018 by Latham Boyle, Kieran Finn, and Neil Turok (with other colleagues later), developed since with a minimum of assumptions and free parameters, using the Standard Model of particle physics, and accepted modern cosmology observations and assumptions along quantum theory to build a time-symmetric model where the BB in forward time is a mirror symmetric image of an anti-BB in reverse time. arXiv: https://arxiv.org/ Query on "CPT symmetric universe"; Harvard astrophysics data system: cf. https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/ Query on "CPT symmetric universe". Along with post-1980 HBBC inflationary cosmology and other kindred counter-inflationary HBB cosmologies, it will be explored in the forthcoming Chapter V. The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation: From Where and Whence? Relevant papers will be cited in this Select Bibliography and particularly in Ch. V as required.

Chitre, S. M., & Narlikar, J. V. 1976. The effect of intergalactic dust on the measurement of the cosmological deceleration parameter q0. Ap&SS 44, 101. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF00650475.

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Chu, Y., Xhu, J., Hu, X., & Arp, H. 1998. Quasars around the Seyfert galaxy NGC 3516. Ap. J. 500, 596. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jmp.2016.711119. .

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Clowes, R., Harris, K. A., Raghunathan, S., Campusano, L. E., Soechting, I. K.; Graham, M. J. 2013. A structure in the early Universe at z ∼ 1.3 that exceeds the homogeneity scale of the R-W concordance cosmology. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 1211 (4), 6256. https://arxiv.org/abs/1211.6256.

Coe, A. et al. 2022. Coe (ed.). Deciphering Earth's History: the Practice of Stratigraphy.‎ London, UK: The Geological Society of London.

Collier, K. Brownell. 1934. Cosmogonies of our Fathers: Some Theories of the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries. In Studies in History, Economics and Public Law; No. 402. Ed. Faculty of Political Science of Columbia University. New York, NY: Columbia University Press. Reprinted 1968, New York, NY: Octagon Books.

Condon, J. J. 1991. In Galactic and Extragalactic Radio Astronomy (2nd ed.). p. 641, (eds. K. I. Kellermann, G. L. Vershuur). Springer Verlag.

Crowe, M. J. 1994. Modern Theories of the Universe, from Herschel to Hubble. Mineola, NY: Dover Publications.

Conformal Cyclic Cosmology (CCC): A cyclic cosmology which rejects the inflationary paradigm approach to the HBBC. In CCC, the Universe reiterates from one Aeon to the next Aeon across infinite cycles with future conformal infinite boundaries between Aeons or cycles of the Universe. It was proposed by Sir Roger Penrose and colleagues since 2010, and makes active predictions about former Aeon remnants in the form of concentric circles of anisotropy in the CMB. arXiv: https://arxiv.org/search/ Query on "Conformal cyclic cosmology"; Harvard astrophysics data system: https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/ Query on "Conformal cyclic cosmology". Along with post-1980 HBBC inflationary cosmology and other kindred counter-inflationary HBB cosmologies, it will be explored in the forthcoming Chapter V. The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation: From Where and Whence? Relevant papers will be cited in this Select Bibliography and particularly in Ch. V as required.

Cotsakis, S. & Yefremov, A. P. 2022. 100 years of mathematical cosmology: Models, theories, and problems. Part A. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 380, 20210191. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsta.2021.0191. This pair of review papers serve as an excellent short summary of the development of cosmology over the late century. Our treatment will be indebted in part to its sweep.

_____. 2022. 100 years of mathematical cosmology: Models, theories and problems. Part B. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 380, 20210171. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsta.2021.0171. This pair of review papers serve as an excellent short summary of the development of cosmology over the late century. Our treatment will be indebted in part to its sweep.

Courant, R. & Hilbert, D. 1924; 1953; 1989 (English translation from the German). Methods of Mathematical Physics. Volume I. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Wiley Interscience Publication (Wiley Classics Library). A classic reference work covering math applications in physics: Linear algebra, series expansions, linear integral equations, calculus of variations, vibration and Eigenvalue problems, calculus of variations applied to Eigenvalue problems, and Eigenvalue problems-defined special functions.

_____. 1962; 1989 (English translation from the German). Methods of Mathematical Physics. Volume II. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Wiley Interscience Publication (Wiley Classics Library). Volume II is also a classic reference book covering math applications to physics: Partial differential equations, higher order differential equations, elliptical differential equations and potential theory, and hyperbolic differential equations. 

(Non-singular) Cyclic Bouncing Cosmology (CBC): A cyclic cosmology without collapse singularities proposed and developed by Paul Steinhardt, Ana Ijjas, and colleagues especially after the Planck satellite and the BICEPS experiment failed to yield the inflationary, polarized B-modes predicted for the CMB. arXiv: https://arxiv.org/ Query on "cyclic bouncing cosmology"; Harvard astrophysics data system: https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/ Query on "cyclic bouncing cosmology". Along with post-1980 HBBC inflationary cosmology and other kindred counter-inflationary HBB cosmologies, it will be explored in the forthcoming Chapter V. The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation: From Where and Whence? Relevant papers will be cited in this Select Bibliography and particularly in Ch. V as required.

Das Gupta, P. 1988. Non-Evolving Luminosity Functions for Radio Galaxies. Ph. D. Dissertation. Bombay University: Bombay, India.

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Ekeberg, B. 2019. Metaphysical Experiments: Physics and the Invention of the Universe (Volume 49) (Posthumanities). Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press. Philosopher of multidisciplinary background who seeks to remind modern science that cosmology has always emerged from and been based on philosophy / metaphysics. His website: https://www.drbjorn.com/. At the IAI (institute of Art and Science), a September 2021 debate, "Where is physics going?" with Sabine Hossenfelder, Bjorn Ekeberg, and Sam Henry: https://youtu.be/b8npmtsfsTU. And in 2019, Scientific American article: "Cosmology has some big problems" (link).

EqWorld: The world of mathematical equations. https://eqworld.ipmnet.ru/index.htmAn excellent reference database for equations of mathematical and physical significance.

European Southern Observatory Data Archive. http://archive.eso.org/cms.html

Fearn, H. 2015. Mach's Principle, action at a distance, and cosmology. Journal of Modern Physics 2015 (6), 260. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jmp.2015.63031; http://www.scirp.org/journal/jmp. Fearn (2015) has shown that Hawking's (1965) critique that the HN theory advanced wave integral diverges at infinity leaving the HN particle field infinitely massive is false in that it does not diverge, but moreover that the cosmic event horizon (CEH) provides the natural upper bound for the HN particle field wave, and it is thus not infinite. Fearn's paper was first released in 2014 on arXiv: https://arxiv.org/abs/1412.5426v1.

Ferris, T. 1977. 1983 (2nd. ed.). The Red Limit: The Search for the Edge of the Universe. New York, NY: HarperCollins; Quill. Written between 1973 and 1977, and revised by 1983, this popular volume encapsulates the controversies in cosmology in the while not having the excitement of the ferment portrayed in Calder's 1969 volume. The CSS cosmologies are summarized rather fairly and their scientific importance and value briefed, but they are considered to have "faded away" from lack of observational support, and the controversies now surround the redshift controversies around quasars and galaxies between renegade Halton Arp and the staid advocate of conservative cosmological orthodoxy, Allan Sandage.

Field, G. B., Arp, H., Bahcall, J. N. 1973. The Redshift Controversy (Frontiers in Physics). New York, NY: W. A. Benjamin; 324 pp. Link. This book summarizes the big 1972 debate between Arp and Bahcall over whether the extragalactic redshifts are a reliable result of the Hubble expansion or not.

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Flesch, E., & Arp, H. 1999. Further evidence that some quasars originate in nearby galaxies: NGC 3628. Astronomy and Astrophysics, accepted. http://arxiv.org/PS_cache/astro-ph/pdf/9907/9907219.pdf; https://doi.org/10.48550/arXiv.astro-ph/9907219. Although accepted by A&A, it seems that this important and paradigm-bursting paper was never actually published in the journal, and still appears as a preprint. 

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Fulton, C. Kokus, M. (eds.) 2017. The Galileo of Palomar: Essays in Memory of Halton Arp. http://haltonarp.com/inc/memorial/TheGalileoOfPalomar.pdf.

GAIA Archive, ESA: https://gea.esac.esa.int/archive/. This resource has data downloads from the GAIA mission, analysis software, and individual object search capabilities.

Gaisser, T. K. 1990. Cosmic Rays and Particle Physics. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. An excellent technical volume on the physics and phenomenology of cosmic rays. A 2nd edition authored with Ralph Engel and Elisa Resconi came out in 2016, 150 more pages on the expanded progress in the field, including on ultra high energy cosmic ray (UHECR) events.

Gamow, G. 1946. Expanding universe and the origin of elements. Phys. Rev. 70, 572. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRev.70.572.2.

____. 1948, The evolution of the Universe. Nature 162, 680. https://doi.org/10.1038/162680a0.

____. 1952. The Creation of the Universe. New York, NY: Viking Press. The early popular account of the Big Bang cosmology which seeks to counter both the Steady State cosmology, and also the theory of stellar nucleosynthesis Hoyle pioneered in 1946 as the explanation of the origin of the heavier elements. Like Hoyle's popular works, Gamow's is also well-illustrated. Unlike Gamow, Hoyle had the propensity to argue in directions which were and are ultimately more productive of progress in the science, even when mistaken. A fundamental difference of approach to science and to cosmology was a large determining factor in the differing legacies of these two giants of 20th century cosmology.

____. 1966. Thirty Years that Shook Physics: The Story of Quantum Theory. Garden City, NY: Doubleday. A delightful summary of the development of quantum theory from Max Planck through Niels Bohr, Wolfgang Pauli, Erwin Schroedinger, Werner Heisenberg, Louis de Broglie, P. A. M. Dirac, Enrico Fermi, and Hideki Yukawa, from the rich personality of George Gamow, before the explosion of sub atomic particles and the tentative advances into quantum field theory, complete with Gamow's personal delightful drawings, illustrations, photographs, and hilarious doggerel poetry.

Geller, M. J. & Huchra, H. P. 1989. Mapping the Universe. Science 246 (4932), 897. https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/science.246.4932.897.

Gibbons, G. 2003. Phantom matter and the cosmological constant. https://arxiv.org/abs/hep-th/0302199v1; https://doi.org/10.48550/arXiv.hep-th/0302199. Considered "scalar fields with negative kinetic energy coupled to gravity" yielding relativity equations with steady state solutions where entropy or matter are continuously created or destroyed. 

Gingrich, O. Let there be light: Modern cosmology and Biblical creation. The World Treasury of Physics, Astronomy, and Mathematics (Ed. T. Ferris). Boston, MA: Little, Brown and Company.

Goedel, K. 1949. An example of a new type of cosmological solution of Einstein's field equations of gravitation. Rev. Mod. Phys. 21, 447. https://journals.aps.org/rmp/pdf/10.1103/RevModPhys.21.447.

Gold, T. & Hoyle, F. 1958. Cosmic rays and radio waves as manifestations of a hot Universe. Paris Symposium on Radio Astronomy. Ed. R. N. Bracewell, Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press; pp. 583-588. This is one of the papers where Gold & Hoyle explored a modified CSSC, where 'Hubble bubbles' of expansion occur in a larger steady state cosmos. They argued that cosmic ray observations and the radio sky could be a result of a such a cosmology.

Gott, J. R. et al. 2005. A map of the Universe. The Astrophysical Journal 624 (2), 463. https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1086/428890.

Gurzadyan, V. G. 1985. Notes from observatories: The cosmological constant in the McCrea-Milne cosmological scheme. The Observatory 105, 42. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985Obs...105...42G.

Guth, A. H. 1981. Inflationary universe: A possible solution to the horizon and flatness problems. Phys. Rev. D23 (2), 347. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.23.347. Friedmann, Lemaitre, Gamow, and others were hypothesists of the HBBC, but Guth is the first real theorist of the HBBC. The HBBC begins at 'initial conditions' (singular in this case, but not necessarily so) when t = 0, looking back, as t 0, Temperature ∞, that is, undefined, for which no theory exists. 'Later' when T approximates the same order as the Planck mass, MP ≡ 1/√(G) = 1.22 x 1019 GeV or more, then the equations of the standard model are meaningless because this would require some unknown unification of quantum theory and general relativity (neither the 'stringists,' 'loopists,' nor 'twisties,' &c. have solved this). So, let's assume that T0 is somewhere safely below MP, perhaps T0 = 1017 GeV. Since T must precede T0, it follows that the HBB Cosmos is a roughly adiabatically-cooling cosmos which is thus expanding according to some initial expansion constant H0 (the particular interpretation of which [Hubble] constant got us into this pickle to begin with :), as well as some unknown initial energy density, ρ0. Since the HBBC early cosmos is assumed to be homogeneous and isotropic arising from essentially massless particles in thermal equilibrium at temperature T0, when cooling from that temperature expands into at least ~1083 separate, causally disconnected regions, which have had no time to be causally-connected with each other (the horizon problem), implying that the forces generating this cosmos, the HBBC, are capable of violating causality. Furthermore, given general relativity, it is 'known' that the energy density of today's Universe (ρtoday = subscriptp) must be close to a critical value, ρcr, the boundary between a closed and an open universe. Thus, the density parameter Ω of today, generously must be in the range of 0.01 < Ωp < 10 so that Ωp ρ / ρcr = (8π/3)Gρ / H2. In a radiation-dominated cosmos, the only time frame we have for the equations is the Planck time, 1/MP = 5.4 x 10-44 sec, during which interval a typical closed cosmos would reach maximum size, and in a typical open cosmos, the energy density ρ would fade away far below ρcr. Therefore, to have our Universe in the HBBC last for ~1010 years, the initial values of ρ and H must be extremely fine-tuned to the critical density (the flatness problem). For that T0 = 1017 GeV, the 'fine tuning' would be on the order of 1 in 1055, although for lower values of T0, the 'fine tuning' would be less, but still considerable. There is still no theory to unite quantum mechanics and general relativity, and thus no physics for T >/= MP. When Guth reconfigured the history of cosmos in terms of temperature with some calculations assuming the Robertson-Walker metric (to achieve homogeneity and isotropy), he found that one could consider the entropy S of the HBBC cosmos this way where S ≡ R3s which shows the total entropy S in a spherical volume s with a radius of curvature R, where S (entropy) is conserved. Assuming that today's energy density is ρ < 10ρcr, R > (1/3)H-1 ~ 3 x 109 years, then working back from the CMB temperature today of Tγ = 2.7 K, he approximates that current Sγ > 3 x 1085, &c. That is a huge entropy. To solve the HBBC causal horizon and flatness problems, one must account for a huge entropy.  
    Inflation. To solve the causal horizon problem and the 'fine-tuning' flatness problem, Guth suggested that our assumption of adiabaticity may be hugely mistaken: Suppose instead that the present (Sp) and the initial (S0) entropy values of R3s are related by some huge volume scale (Z) as Sp = Z3S0. Given some calculations and our 'initial' value guess of T0 = 1017 GeV could yield a |ρ - ρcr |/ρ ~ 1 (order unity), then the flatness problem would be avoided if Z > 3 x 1027. Next, if we incorporate Z3 into the modified calculations so that Z > 5 x 1027, then the causal horizon problem is pushed away out beyond the observer's horizon: Solved. How to achieve all this? Now suppose in the HBBC that for a cosmos producing high entropy, the equation of state for matter (no chemical potentials) has a 1st order phase transition at critical temperature Tc, so that as the Universe cools through Tc, 'bubbles' of low temperature phase nucleate and grow. Suppose further that the nucleation rate for this secondary (2nd order) phase transition is low, then as the cosmos expands and continues cooling, the high temperature phase will 'supercool' in a process which continues down to some temperature Ts, multiple orders of magnitude below Tc. When the 2nd order phase transition occurs, 'latent heat' is released and the cosmos reheats to Tr, which is comparable in magnitude with Tc. Assuming the degrees of freedom in the two phases are comparable, there is a huge increase in entropy density of ~(Tr / Ts)3 while the value of R remains the same! So, Z ~ Tr / Ts. "If the [HBBC] universe supercools by 28 orders of magnitude below some critical temperature [i.e., Tc], the horizon and flatness problems disappear[!]" For this inflation scenario to work, with all of its many speculations, assumptions, and suppositions, the HBBC inflationary cosmos must have no strictly conserved quantities. Therefore, appealing to proposed to grand unified theories (GUTs) where baryonic number is not conserved but believed to be created via CP-violations at energies of 1013-1014 GeV, Guth suggested that as long as Tc << 1014 GeV, then baryon creation could occur after the 'reheating' of the cosmos bubble. In the years since Guth (1981), inflationary scenarios and models have undergone inflationary proliferation and modifications, including speculations about a scalar inflaton field, &c., and are now central to the modern HBBC ΛCDM paradigm. Some are challenging inflation and suggesting inflation is not fit for purpose. These issues we will examine in more detail in chapters III and V.
    Note: Alan Guth in 1981 (with his many acknowledged contributors) ironically introduced into the HBBC from an initial conditions thermodynamic, quantum approach, what was well before being considered in the CSSC models, especially with Fred Hoyle (with input from Maurice Pryce), and Jayant Narlikar from a Machian, quantum approach, the need to explicitly consider baryon creation in cosmology. By placing this issue back into an unobservable time of exponential special conditions, the inflationary HBBC has a reservoir of multiple adjustable free parameters and epicycles from which to draw. 

____. 1997. The Inflationary Universe: The Quest for a New Theory of Cosmic Crigins. Reading, MA / New York, NY / &c.: Helix Books, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.

Gurzadyan, V. G. & Penrose, R. 2010. Concentric circles in WMAP data may provide evidence of violent pre-Big-Bang activity. https://arxiv.org/abs/1011.3706.

Guthrie, B. N. & Napier, W. M. 1996. Redshift periodicity in the local supercluster. Astron. & Ap. 310, 353. https://articles.adsabs.harvard.edu/full/1996A%26A...310..353G.

Harvard University, online astronomical and astrophysical abstracts and papers: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/ads_abstracts.html.

Hawking, S. W. 1965. On the Hoyle-Narlikar theory of gravitation. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A 286 (1406), 313. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2415317. Fearn (2015) has shown that Hawking's (1965) critique that the HN theory advanced wave integral diverges at infinity leaving the HN particle field infinitely massive is false in that it does not diverge, but moreover that the cosmic event horizon (CEH) provides the natural upper bound for the HN particle field wave, and it is thus not infinite (i.e., does not diverge), leaving the HN theory of gravity a viable Machian theory.

____. 1975. Particle creation by black holes. Commun. Math. Phys. 43, 199. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02345020. Hawking's key paper on the interaction of quantum mechanics and general relativity in the phenomenon of 'Hawking radiation.'

____. 1988. A Brief History of Time: From the Big Bang to Black Holes. New York, NY: Bantam Books. This volume, ABHT, in both editions acknowledged respect to the CSS cosmologies by explaining that Steady State cosmology was a "good hypothesis" because it made definite predictions, and was therefore falsifiable. ABHT considered that the "radio source counts" had falsified the theory, as well as the CMB confirming the Big Bang. That neither had actually happened adds interest to our history of cosmology here, and illustrates the effect of popular works by scientists on public perceptions, both pro and against the standard HBB Cosmology.

____. 1996. The illustrated A Brief History of Time (expanded and updated ed.). New York, NY: Bantam Books.

____. 2001. The Universe in a Nutshell. New York, NY: Bantam Books.

Hawking, S. W. & Ellis, G. F. R. 1974. Large Scale Structure of Spacetime. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

H.E.S.S. The High Energy Stereoscopic System is for imaging of atmospheric Cerenkov radiation from cosmic gamma rays from 10s of GeV to 10s of TeV. H.E.S.S. is named after 1936 Nobel laureate Victor Hess, the discoverer of cosmic rays: https://www.mpi-hd.mpg.de/HESS/; located in the Khomas Highland of Namibia about 100 km SW of Windhoek, Namibia at 23o16'18" S, 16o30'00" E at 1800 m asl. There is an H.E.S.S. source catalogue; publications: https://www.mpi-hd.mpg.de/HESS/pages/publications/.

Hecht, E. 1996. Physics: Calculus. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole Publishing.

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Heeren, F.  2000. 2004. Show me God: What the Message from Space is Telling Us about God. (Rev. Ed.). Wonders, Vol. 1. Wheeling, IL: Day Star Publications. An apologetic book seeking to popularly convey the excitement of astronomy and cosmology and find parallels with Biblical fundamentalism. The too-easily-convinced skeptic in the little dialogues present is called "Fred" although it is not clear whether this is a reference to the author or obliquely to "Fred Hoyle" the dissident cosmologist, who is cited directly multiple times from pp. 26 to 381 (2000 printing) as the defender of the disproven CSSC, while interviewing and interacting with such HBBC advocates as Robert Jastrow, as well as later HBBC Nobel laureates, Robert Wilson, Arno Penzias, George Smoot, John Mather. More religious apologetist authors will be added from time to time to this select bibliography. 

Heinegg, P. 2003. Mortalism: Readings on the Meaning of Life. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Press.

Helou, G., Soifer, B. T., & Rowan-Robinson, M. 1985. Thermal infrared and nonthermal radio: Remarkable correlation in disks of galaxies. ApJ 298, L7. 

Hewett, P. C., Foltz, C. B., & Chaffee, F. H. 1995. The large bright quasar survey. 6: Quasar catalog and survey parameters (contains table of LBQS): The Astronomical Journal 109, 1498: ftp://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/pub/cats/J/AJ/109/1498/table4.

Hewitt, A. & Burbidge, G. 1993. A revised and updated catalog of quasi-stellar objects. ApJ S. 87, 451. https://heasarc.gsfc.nasa.gov/W3Browse/all/qso.html.

Hinshelwood, C. 1965. Science and scientists (A speech by the President to the British Association Meeting in Cambridge). Nature 207 (5001), 1055. https://doi.org/10.1038/2071055a0.

Hogarth, J. 1962. Cosmological considerations of the absorber theory of radiation. Proc. R. Soc. A267, 365. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspa.1962.0105.

Holder, R. D. 2013. Big Bang, Big God: A Universe designed for Life? Oxford, UK: Lion Books, Lion House. This popular apologetic book is an excellent resource on the theological implications of the cosmological theories in the 20th and 21st centuries, and was written by an Anglican Rev. Dr. who was trained at Oxford University with a DPhil in Astrophysics, pursuing postdoctoral work "researching accretion of intergalactic gas by the galaxy" (link), followed by years of working for UK Ministry of Defence contractors. He later earned a degree in Theology and has served as an academician at Oxford, a chaplain, and a parish priest. He is the author of a number of other books including on natural theology, the life and legacy of Abbe Lemaitre, the father of the Big Bang, and is the recipient of the Templeton Foundation Prize for a 1998 paper on miracles. A welcome corrective to naive apologetics, Rev. Dr. Holder is a sophisticated theologian who recognizes what great theologians have often espied for centuries—the simplicity of God. He also gives his case for the triumph of the Big Bang, the probabilities and fine tuning of Nature's laws and constants for life, the inference of the Creator's mind, and the failures of "scientific naturalism," and especially the "multiverse" hypothesis as a non-design inference option (see his 2004 work, cited below). He admits early in his telling (as others have recognized) that neither the Big Bang cosmologies, nor the Steady State cosmologies are actually out of harmony with the possibility of God, but of course as a Christian theist he quickly links the triumph of theism with the Big Bang cosmology.

____. 2004; 2016. God, the Multiverse, and Everything: Modern Cosmology and the Argument from Design. London, UK: Ashgate Publishing / Informa (Taylor & Francis); New York, NY / London, UK: Routledge.

Horgan, J. 1995. Profile: Fred Hoyle, The return of the maverick. Scientific American (March 1995), 46.

Hoskin, M. 1999. The Cambridge Concise History of Astronomy. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. 

Hoyle, F. 1938-2000. A reference archive of F. Hoyle's published papers maintained by St. John's College, Cambridge University: https://www.joh.cam.ac.uk/library/special_collections/personal_papers/hoylereprints/.

____. A web memorial of Sir Fred's life and work: https://www.hoyle.org.uk/.

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____. 1946. The synthesis of the elements from hydrogen. MNRAS 106,(5), 343. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/106.5.343.

____. 1948. A new model for the expanding Universe. MNRAS 108 (5), 372. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/108.5.372.

____. 1949. On the cosmological problem. MNRAS 109 (3), 365. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/109.3.365.

____. 1950. The Nature of the Universe. London, UK: Basil Blackwell.

____. 1954. On nuclear reactions occurring in very hot stars. I. The synthesis of elements from carbon to nickel. Bull. American Astron. Soc. 1, 121. https://articles.adsabs.harvard.edu/full/1954ApJS....1..121H.

____. 1955. 1959 edition. The Frontiers of Astronomy. New York, NY: Harper & Row, Publishers; London, UK: William Heinamann.

____. 1965. Galaxies, Nuclei, and Quasars. New York, NY: Harper & Row. This little volume gives details on the HN variable mass C-field theory (publ. 1963, 1964, 1966), and its generalization beyond the classic steady state cosmology (CSSC) into variations, cyclic (anticipating the QSSC), namely their 'radical departure' from CSSC theory, namely the so-called 'Hubble bubble[s]' within a larger Steady State Universe.

____. 1965. Recent developments in cosmology. Nature 208 (5006), 111. https://www.nature.com/articles/208111a0.

____. 1983. The Intelligent Universe. New York, NY: Holt, Rhinehart and Winston.

____. 1987. in Highlights in Gravitation and Cosmology, Proc. Int'l. Conf. on Gravitation and Cosmology at Goa, India (eds. B. R. Iver, A. Kembavi, J. V. Narlikar, Cambridge), p. 236.

____. 1992. A mathematical theory of the origin of matter. Astrophysics and Space Science 198 (2), 195. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00644754

Hoyle, F. & Burbidge, G. 1966. Relation between the red-shifts of Quasi-stellar Objects and their radio magnitudes. Nature 212, 1334. https://doi.org/10.1038/2121334a0.

____. 1996. Anomalous redshifts in the spectra of extragalactic objects. Astronomy and Astrophysics 309, 335. https://articles.adsabs.harvard.edu/full/1996A%26A...309..335H.

____. 1998. The origin of helium and the other light elements. ApJ 509 (1), L1. https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1086/311756.

Hoyle, F., Burbidge, G., & Narlikar, J. V. 1993. A quasi-steady state cosmological model with creation of matter. ApJ 410, 437. https://articles.adsabs.harvard.edu/pdf/1993ApJ...410..437H.

____. 1994a. Astrophysical deductions from the quasi-steady-state cosmology. MNRAS 267 (4), 1007. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/267.4.1007.

____. 1994b. Further astrophysical quantities expected in a quasi-steady state Universe. Astronomy and Astrophysics 289 (3), 729. https://articles.adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-iarticle_query?1994A%26A...289..729H.

____. 1995a. The basic theory underlying the quasi-steady-state cosmology. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A 448, 191.

____. 1995b. The quasi-steady-state cosmology: a note on criticisms by E. L. Wright. MNRAS 277 (1), L1. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/277.1.L1.

____. 1997. On the Hubble constant and the cosmological constant. MNRAS 286, 173.

____. 2000. A Different Approach to Cosmology: From a Static Universe through the Big Bang towards Reality. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK. 414 pp. http://books.google.com/books?id=fLfd-oJRQIcC&printsec=frontcover.

Hoyle, F., Burbidge, G. R., & Sargent, W. L. W. 1966. On the nature of the Quasi-Stellar Sources. Nature 209 (5025), 751. https://doi.org/10.1038/209751a0.

Hoyle, F. & Narlikar, J. V. 1961. On the counting of radio sources in the steady state cosmology. MNRAS 123 (2), 133. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/123.2.133.

____. 1962. On the counting of radio sources in the steady-state cosmology, II. MNRAS 125, 13. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/125.1.13.

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____. 1964a. A new theory of gravitation. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A 282 (1389), 191. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2414805. Fearn (2015) has shown that Hawking's (1965) critique that the HN theory advanced wave integral diverges at infinity leaving the HN particle field infinitely massive is false in that it does not diverge, but moreover that the cosmic event horizon (CEH) provides the natural upper bound for the HN particle field wave, and it is thus not infinite. Hawking's famous debunking of the HN theory fails.

____. 1964b. On the avoidance of singularities in C-field cosmology. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A 278 (1375), 465. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2414728.

____. 1964c. Time symmetric electrodynamics and the arrow of time in cosmology. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A 277 (1368), 1. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2414645.

____. 1964d. The C-field as a direct particle field. Proc. Roy. Soc. A 282, 178. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspa.1964.0225.

____. 1964e. Gravitational influence of direct particle fields. Proc. R. Soc. A 282, 184. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspa.1964.0226.

____. 1964f. A new theory of gravitation. Proc. R. Soc. A 282, 191. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspa.1964.0227.

____. 1966a. On the effects of the non-conservation of baryons in cosmology. Proc. Roy. Soc. A 290 (1421), 143. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspa.1966.0042.

____. 1966b. A radical departure from the 'steady state' concept in cosmology. Proc. Roy. Soc. A 290 (1421), 162. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspa.1966.0043.

____. 1966c. On the formation of elliptical galaxies. Proc. Roy. Soc. A 290 (1421), 177. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspa.1966.0044.

____. 1968a. Cosmology and quantum electrodynamics. Nature 219, 340. https://doi.org/10.1038/219340a0.

____. 1968b. Cosmology and electrodynamics. Nature 220, 893. https://doi.org/10.1038/220893a0.

____. 1969. Electrodynamics of direct interparticle action. I. The quantum mechanical response of the Universe. Ann. Phys. (NY) 54, 207. https://doi.org/10.1016/0003-4916(69)90151-1.

____. 1969. The quantum mechanical response of the universe. Ann. Phys. (N.Y.) 54, 207. https://doi.org/10.1016/0003-4916(69)90151-1.

____. 1969. Cosmology and quantum electrodynamics. Nature 222, 1040. https://doi.org/10.1038/2221040a0.

____. 1969. How mportant is steady state cosmology to classical and quantum electrodynamics? Nature 223, 1145. https://doi.org/10.1038/2231145b0.   

____. 1970. Quantization of Wheeler-Feynman electrodynamics. Nature 225, 1233. https://doi.org/10.1038/2251233a0.

____. 1970. Effect of quantum conditions in a Friedmann cosmology. Nature 228, 544. https://doi.org/10.1038/228544c0.

____. 1971. Electrodynamics of direct interparticle action: II. Relativistic treatment of radiative processes. Ann. Phys. (NY) 62, 44. https://doi.org/10.1016/0003-4916(71)90268-5

____. 1971. On the nature of mass. Nature 233, 41. https://doi.org/10.1038/233041a0. Suggests that since the growing number of observations of "discrepant" redshifts cannot be dismissed as mere juxtapositions, a possible explanation could involve a time-dependent decreasing gravitation 'constant' in terms of a C-field cosmological theory.

____. 1972. The mass difference of the muon and the electron. Nature 238, 86. https://doi.org/10.1038/238086a0.

____. 1974. Action at a Distance in Physics and Cosmology. San Francisco, CA: W. H. Freeman and Company. https://archive.org/. Incorporating insights from direct-interaction physics as well as field theories, the authors discussed the applications these concepts to electromagnetism and gravitation, and then to models in cosmology.

____. 1993. On the removal of divergences in quantum electrodynamics: a global point of view. Proc. R. Soc. A442, 469. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspa.1993.0115

____. 1995. Cosmology and action at a distance electrodynamics. Rev. Mod. Phys. 61, 113. https://doi.org/10.1103/RevModPhys.67.113. Points out that Friedmann cosmologies fail to meet the strictures of the Wheeler-Feynman absorber theory of radiation on the asymptotic future and past light cones of the Universe, whereas the steady-state and the quasi-steady-state models meet those strictures, including being free from "problems of [infinite] divergence" such that "no normalization is needed."

Hoyle, F. & Tayler, R. 1964. The mystery of cosmic helium abundance. Nature 203, 1108. https://doi.org/10.1038/2031108a0.

Hoyle, F. & Wickramasinghe, N. C. 1967. Impurities in interstellar grains. Nature 214, 969. https://doi.org/10.1038/214969a0. This paper proposes that properties of trace elements in interstellar grains may contribute to the thermalization of radiation, including the cosmic microwave background.

____. 1988. Metallic particles in Astronomy. Astrophys. & Space Sci. 147, 248. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00645669.

Hubble, E. P. 1926. Extragalactic nebulae. ApJ 64, 321. https://doi.org/10.1086/143018.

____. 1929. A relation between distance and radial velocity among extra-galactic nebulae. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 15 (3), 168. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.15.3.168.  

Hubble, E. P. & Humason, M. L. 1931. The velocity-distance relation among extra-galactic nebulae. ApJ 74, 43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/143323.

The Hubble Space Telescope. The Hubble Site resource gallery: https://hubblesite.org/resource-gallery. The Space Telescope Institute (STScI): https://www.stsci.edu/.

Humason, M. L. 1929. The large radial velocity of NGC 7619. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 15, 167. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.15.3.167 .

Hummel, C. E. 1986. The Galileo Connection: Resolving Conflicts between Science & the Bible. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press.

Hamilton, R. S. 1982. Three-manifolds with positive Ricci curvature. J. Diff. Geom. 17 (2), 255-306. https://projecteuclid.org/journals/journal-of-differential-geometry/volume-17/issue-2/Three-manifolds-with-positive-Ricci-curvature/10.4310/jdg/1214436922.full. Hamilton of course was the mathematician who laid the foundation for the breakthrough resulting in Grisha Perelman's proof of the Poincare Theorem. Before leaving the field of mathematics, Perelman declined the prizes and accolades, and decried the pathetic state of political ethics in mathematics, pointing out that Hamilton's work was just as important as his own in proving the great Henri Poincare's famous conjecture, to show that it is indeed a theorem in topology.

____. 1993. The Harnack estimate for the Ricci flow. J. Diff. Geom. 37 (1), 225-243. https://projecteuclid.org/journals/journal-of-differential-geometry/volume-37/issue-1/The-Harnack-estimate-for-the-Ricci-flow/10.4310/jdg/1214453430.full?tab=ArticleLinkCited. Hamilton of course was the mathematician who laid the foundation for the breakthrough resulting in Grisha Perelman's proof of the Poincare Theorem. Before leaving the field of mathematics, Perelman declined the prizes and accolades, and decried the pathetic state of political ethics in mathematics, pointing out that Hamilton's work was just as important as his own in proving the great Henri Poincare's famous conjecture, to show that it is indeed a theorem in topology.

____. 1995. Formation of singularities in the Ricci flow. Surveys in Diff. Geom. 2 (1), 7-136. https://doi.org/10.4310/SDG.1993.v2.n1.a2.
Hamilton of course was the mathematician who laid the foundation for the breakthrough resulting in Grisha Perelman's proof of the Poincare Theorem. Before leaving the field of mathematics, Perelman declined the prizes and accolades, and decried the pathetic state of political ethics in mathematics, pointing out that Hamilton's work was just as important as his own in proving the great Henri Poincare's famous conjecture, to show that it is indeed a theorem in topology.

____. 1997. Four-manifolds with positive isotropic curvature. Commun. Anal. Geom. 5 (1), 1-92.https://intlpress.com/site/pub/files/_fulltext/journals/cag/1997/0005/0001/CAG-1997-0005-0001-a001.pdf. Hamilton of course was the mathematician who laid the foundation for the breakthrough resulting in Grisha Perelman's proof of the Poincare Theorem. Before leaving the field of mathematics, Perelman declined the prizes and accolades, and decried the pathetic state of political ethics in mathematics, pointing out that Hamilton's work was just as important as his own in proving the great Henri Poincare's famous conjecture, to show that it is indeed a theorem in topology.

____. 1999. Non-singular solutions of the Ricci flow on three-manifolds. Commun. Anal. Geom. 7, 695-729. https://www.intlpress.com/site/pub/files/_fulltext/journals/cag/1999/0007/0004/CAG-1999-0007-0004-a002.pdf. Hamilton of course was the mathematician who laid the foundation for the breakthrough resulting in Grisha Perelman's proof of the Poincare Theorem. Before leaving the field of mathematics, Perelman declined the prizes and accolades, and decried the pathetic state of political ethics in mathematics, pointing out that Hamilton's work was just as important as his own in proving the great Henri Poincare's famous conjecture, to show that it is indeed a theorem in topology.

Hayashida, N., Honda, K., Honda, M., Inoue, N., Kadota, K., Kakimoto, F., Kamata, K., Kawaguchi, S., Kawasumi, N., Matsubara, Y., Murakami, K., Nagano, M., Ohoka, H., Sakaki, N., Souma, N., Takeda, M., Teshima, M., Tsushima, I., Uchihori, Y., Yoshida, S., & Yoshii, H. 1996. A possible correlation of most energetic cosmic rays observed by AGASA with supergalactic structure. https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/A-possible-correlation-of-most-energetic-cosmic-by-Hayashida-Honda/6ca14046f43d02c6e7139bf6058a5c5f2fbbdccf.

Hipparcos & Tycho Main Catalogues, from ESA's Hipparcos mission (November 1989 - March 1993): https://heasarc.gsfc.nasa.gov/W3Browse/all/hipparcos.html; also has an ESA page to the databases: https://www.cosmos.esa.int/web/hipparcos/catalogues. This database set contains a vast wealth of data on stellar parallaxes, direct measurements which can be turned into stellar distances with a little trigonometry.  

IAU Constellations (88). The Sky Tonight: The cultural archaeology of the stars. https://skytonight.org/index.php/iau. The 88 constellations with their 1922 established boundaries by the International Astronomical Union (IAU), as well as historical constellation star maps, including high resolution images of the most beautifully artistic of them all, the Uranometria (1603, 1661) of Johannes Bayer (1572-1625) with artist-engraver Alexander Mair (1559-1617). https://doi.org/10.3931/e-rara-309. (archived facsimile). 

Ibison, M. 2005. Submitted 2009. Thermalization of starlight in the steady-state cosmology. http://arxiv.org/abs/0910.3004.

Ijjas. A. 2018. Space-time slicing in Horndeski theories and its implications for non-singular bouncing solutions. https://arXiv:1710.05990v2.

Ijjas, A., Steinhardt, P. J., & Loeb, A. 2013. Inflationary paradigm in trouble after Planck2013. https://arxiv.org/abs/1304.2785.

____. 2014. Inflationary schism after Planck2013. https://arxiv.org/abs/1402.6980.

Ijjas, A. & Steinhardt, P. J. 2015. Implications of Planck2015 for inflationary, ekpyrotic and anamorphic bouncing cosmologies. https://arxiv.org/abs/1512.09010.

Inflationary HBB cosmology: A postulated epoch of cosmic exponential expansion postulated to have occurred from between 10-36 sec post-BB to ~10-32 sec post-BB to make corrections for issues in traditional HBBC, proposed in 1980 and since by Alan Guth, Andrei Linde, Paul Steinhardt, with help and development by scores of cosmologists across the decades since in tens of thousands of papers with many parameter variations. It is the most-favored paradigm underlying the modern ΛCDM HBBC. arXiv: https://arxiv.org/ Query on "inflationary cosmology"; Harvard astrophysics data system: https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/ Query on "inflationary cosmology". Along with post-1980 counter-inflationary HBB cosmologies, it will be explored in the forthcoming Chapter V. The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation: From Where and Whence? Relevant papers will be cited in this Select Bibliography and particularly in Ch. V as required.

Inoue, T. I. & Silk, J. 2006. Local voids as the origin of large-angle Cosmic Microwave Background anomalies. I. ApJ 648 (1), 23. https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1086/505636.

Islam, J. N. 1966. Green function formulation of the Dirac field in curved space. Proc. Roy. Soc. A 294 (1429), 29. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspa.1966.0217.

____. 1969. Field equations in the neighbourhood of a particle in a conformal theory of gravity. Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. A 313, 71. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspa.1969.0180. Three other field papers by Islam are cited in the bibliography.

Israel, J. I. 2001. Radical Enlightenment: Philosophy and the Making of Modernity, 1650-1750. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

____. 2005. Enlightenment contested: Philosophy, Modernity, and the Emancipation of Man, 1650-1752. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Jastrow, R. 1978, 1992, 2000. God and the Astronomers (1st, 2nd, & 3rd editions). New York, NY / London, UK: W. H. Norton & Co. A public figure of science with TV appearances and popular books since the 1960s, Robert Jastrow, was a founding director of NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies. First published in 1978, Jastrow's popular apologia for the Big Bang cosmology, made the case that the Big Bang theory was a discovery which ultimately brought science and religion together in taking us to the verge of creation. (This book was condensed for Reader's Digest, in about 1979. Started in 1922, Reader's Digest became a pre-Internet, once-widespread cultural stay of conservative framing (1922-2015 issues Internet Archived; current URL: https://www.rd.com/), and this condensation gave very wide coverage to the Big Bang and its implications, finding an eager audience, including thrilling this author as a young lad, with interests in science, especially in astronomy, God and religion, then being a young conservative Christian). Jastrow opened his book by stating that "in my case it should be understood from the start that I am an agnostic in religious matters." He closed with the famous, lofty words, "For the scientist who has lived by his faith in the power of reason, the story ends like a bad dream. He has scaled the mountains of ignorance; he is about to conquer the highest peak; as he pulls himself over the final rock, he is greeted by a band of theologians who have been sitting there for centuries." (Jastrow helped fire further this young lad's interest, which then took a major leap with the discovery of astronomer-cosmologist Fred Hoyle). By 1982, Jastrow had cast his cultural vote in the battle for the dominance of the New Ptolemaic System in an interview entitled, "A scientist caught between two faiths: Interview with Robert Jastrow" in Christianity Today (August 6, 1982), with these breathtaking assertions: "Astronomers now find they have painted themselves into a corner because they have proven, by their own methods, that the world began abruptly in an act of creation to which you can trace the seeds of every star, every planet, every living thing in this cosmos and on the earth. And they have found that all this happened as a product of forces they cannot hope to discover. That there are what I or anyone would call supernatural forces at work is now, I think, a scientifically proven fact" (link; cf. book link). He was hardly the last of such culturally-powerful apologists, though none so eloquently or with such personal space age eminence. Today, such an apologia can no longer be taken seriously, either scientifically, philosophically, or theologically.   

John Paul II. 1988. Address to the Pontifical Academy of Sciences. Cited in http://www.humanist.org.nz/Docs/BigBang.html.

Joseph, R. 2010a. The quantum Cosmos and micro-Universe: Black holes, gravity, elementary particles, and the destruction and creation of matter. Journal of Cosmology 4, 780-800. http://journalofcosmology.com/Cosmology5.html (now defunct).

____. 2010b. The Infinite Universe vs the myth of the Big Bang: Red shifts, black holes, acceleration, life. Journal of Cosmology 6, 1548-1615. http://journalofcosmology.com/Cosmology4.html (now defunct).

Kalicin, M., Mutafova, K. 2001. Historical accounts of the Halveti Shaykh Bali Efendi of Sofia in a newly discovered vita dating from the nineteenth century. Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations 12 (3), 339-353. Link.

Kanas, N. 2019. Star Maps: History, Artistry, and Cartography (3rd edition). Chichester, UK: Springer, Praxis Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-13613-0.

Kazanas, D. 1980. Dynamics of the universe and spontaneous symmetry breaking, ApJ 241, L59. https://articles.adsabs.harvard.edu/full/1980ApJ...241L..59K.

King, H. C. 1967. Pictorial Guide to the Stars. New York, NY: Thomas Y. Crowell.

Kellermann, K. I. 1972. Radio galaxies, quasars, and cosmology. Astron. J. 77 (7), 531. https://articles.adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-iarticle_query?1972AJ.....77..531K; also published in revised and less daring form as chapter 12, "Radio galaxies and quasars" in 1974. Verschuur G. L. & Kellerman, K. I. (eds.), & by the staff of the NRAO. Galactic and Extra-Galactic Radio Astronomy. Berlin, Germany; New York, NY: Springer Verlag (link): https://ned.ipac.caltech.edu/level5/Sept04/Kellermann/paper.pdf; 1st edition, a textbook which went through a 2nd edition in 1988, and a third edition in 1991. The primary candid paper by radio astronomer Kellermann summarized the extragalactic radio sources data as of 1972 in (a) the radio sources counts, (b) the spectral index-distance relation, (c) the angular size-distance relation, and (d) the apparent motions of out-ward expanding radio sources (cf. 'superluminal' motions). He spots a series of paradoxes, either (i) the relations are just so as to appear to fit the cosmological models, or (ii) they do not appreciably depart from a Euclidean Universe just beyond the classic steady state cosmology (CSSC). Kellermann opines that to make adjustments to fit an evolutionary cosmology (like the HBBC) may be "too many epicycles" and that there is evidence that many of these redshifts are not at cosmological H0 distances. By 1974, the paper had been considerably domesticated, and the cosmological implications for world models essentially removed. In 1974, Sir Martin Ryle was co-awarded the Nobel Prize with Martin Hewish for contributions to radio astronomy, including radio source counts which supposedly pointed to an evolutionary (Big Bang) cosmos. We know now that these radio source count data in fact did not in fact confirm an evolutionary cosmos. See Das Gupta, P. 1988. Non-Evolving Luminosity Functions for Radio Galaxies. Ph. D. Dissertation. Bombay University: Bombay, India; and Das Gupta, P., Narlikar, J. V., & Burbidge, G. R. 1988. The counting of radio sources: Is evolution necessary? ApJ 95, 5. https://articles.adsabs.harvard.edu/pdf/1988AJ.....95....5D; cf. Kellermann, K. I. &  Wall, J. V. 1987. Chapter IX. The distribution of radio sources: Radio source counts and their interpretation. Symposium - International Astronomical Union 124, 545; https://doi.org/10.1017/S0074180900159546; published online at Cambridge: Radio source counts and their interpretation document in PDF.

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Kopylov, A. I. & Kopylova, F. G. 2002. Search for streaming motion of galaxy clusters around the Giant Void. A&A 382, 389. DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361:20011500.

Kragh, H. S. 1999. Cosmology and Controversy: The Historical Development of Two Theories of the Universe. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. An HBBC partisan history which seeks to advocate, and foreclose further debate, rather than simply document the historical controversy between 20th century cosmologies, namely the HBBC and the CSSC.

____. 2007. Conceptions of Cosmos: From Myths to the Accelerating Universe. A History of Cosmology. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. An attempt at a comprehensive history of cosmology, from the standpoint of the triumph of the modern Big Bang theory.

____. 2012. Quasi-steady-state and related cosmological models: A historical review. arXiv: History and Philosophy of Physics. https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1201/1201.3449.pdf.

Kramnick I. 1995. The Portable Enlightenment Reader. London, UK: Penguin Books, Ltd. 

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Kumar Lal, Ashwini. 2010. Big Bang? A critical review. Journal of Cosmology 6, 1533-1547. http://journalofcosmology.com/BigBang101.html.

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Layzer, D. 1975. The arrow of time. Scientific American 1275, 56. https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/the-arrow-of-time/.

Leiter, D. J. 1969. How important is Steady State Cosmology to classical and quantum electrodynamics? Nature 223, 1145. https://doi.org/10.1038/2231145a0

Lemaitre, G. 1927. A homogeneous Universe of constant mass and increasing radius accounting for the radial velocity of extra-galactic nebulae, Annales de la Societe Scientifique de Bruxelles XLVII A, 49. A Roman Catholic priest of the fraternal order of the Friends of Jesus or the Society of Jesus (Jesuits), the young Fr. Georges Lemaitre SJ presents a very sympathetic figure (to me personally) in that his early internal sciences / faith journey caused him to seek scientific elements in Scripture. Over time, his science / faith views matured in part because of his interactions with Sir Arthur Eddington and other scientists, so that he grew to distinguish between the sciences and his faith, a process helped by his earning degrees in mathematics and physics at the same time as he finished a baccalaureate in Thomistic philosophy at Universite Catholique de Louvain (Belgium). In so doing, he wisely began to "differentiate theological creation from the Universe's natural beginning." From the Universite Catholique de Louvain archives:  https://archives.uclouvain.be/exhibits/show/georges-lemaitre-en/beginning-or-creation. Later mid-20th century, Lemaitre sought to temper the early, exuberant, triumphalistic embrace of the incipient hot Big Bang cosmology (HBBC) by Pope Pius XII as discussed in chapter III

Lewis, G. F. & Brewer, B. J. 2023. Detection of the cosmological time dilation of high-redshift quasars. Nat Astron. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41550-023-02029-2. This paper fresh out in July of 2023 publishes evidence of time dilation in 190 high-z quasars. The authors argue that the independence of QSO redshift from QSO variability can be dismissed as a challenge to the "standard cosmological model" and they claim their analysis confirms that QSOs are "truly cosmologically distant sources." Of course, with all the evidence of QSOs associated with more local galaxies, associated time-dilations with high-z QSOs could also be consistent with non-cosmological component to redshifts such as in the apparent ejections of the Ambartsumian-Arp cosmogony (see chapter IX).

Linde, A. D. 1982. A new inflationary universe scenario: A possible solution of the horizon, flatness, homogeneity, isotropy and primordial monopole problems, Phys. Lett. B. 108, 389. https://doi.org/10.1016/0370-2693(82)91219-9.

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Livio, M. 2013. Brilliant blunders: How the Big Bang beat out the Steady State Universe. https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/article/brilliant-blunders/. A popular internet article on the 'triumph' of the Big Bang over the Steady State cosmologies, with confidence missing some of the very facts which show that the scientific data conflicts between HBBC and the CSSC were actually wrongly understood to be decisive.

Lovell, A. C. B. & Lovell, M. J. 1963. Discovering the Universe. New York, NY: Harper & Row.

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Mather, J. C. et al. 1994. Measurement of the Cosmic Microwave Background spectrum by the COBE FIRAS instrument. ApJ 420, 439. https://articles.adsabs.harvard.edu/pdf/1994ApJ...420..439M.

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Mills, B. Y. & Slee, O. B. 1957. A preliminary survey of radio sources in a limited region of the sky at a wavelength of 3.5 m. Austr. J. Phys. 10, 162. https://doi.org/10.1071/PH570162.

Mitton, S. 2011. Fred Hoyle: A Life in Science. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

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Mitton, S., & Ryle, M. 1977. The Cambridge University Encyclopaedia of Astronomy. New York, NY: Crown Publishers.

Misner, C. W., Thorne, K. S., & Wheeler, J. A. 1973. Gravitation. New York, NY: W. H. Freeman. This massive volume is the comprehensive explication of modern gravitational theory as interpreted in general relativity.

Morgan, J. & Tian, G. 2007. Completion of the proof of the Geometrization Conjecture. https://arxiv.org/abs/0809.4040. A completion of the proof of Poincare's Theorem, done in outline by Perelman (2002a, 2002b, & 2003); building on the work of R. S. Hamilton (1982, 1993, 1995, 1997, 1999) also in this bibliography.

Motz, L. & Nathanson, C. 1988. The Constellations: An Enthusiast's Guide to the Night Sky. New York, NY / London, UK / &c.: Doubleday.

A Mathematical Interpretation of Hawking�s Black Hole Theory by Ri Munitz, M. K. (ed.). 1957. Theories of the Universe: From Babylonian Myth to Modern Science (The Library of Scientific Thought). New York, NY: The Free Press, A Division of Simon & Schuster. https://archive.org/details/theoriesofuniver0000unse/page/n5/mode/2up. This anthology was assembled right in the midst of the 'war of the world-views' controversy between the HBBC and the CSSC, furnishing not only a history including the ancient Babylonians, but also the Ionian cosmologists, the cosmologists of the Copernican Revolution and the Enlightenment, as well as the contemporary contestants alive and active in 1957: Georges Lemaitre, George Gamow, Hermann Bondi, Dennis Sciama, and Fred Hoyle, among others. 

Nadathur, S. & Crittenden, R. A detection of the integrated Sachs-Wolfe imprint of cosmic superstructures using a matched-filter approach. arXiv:1608.08638v2.

Nancy Grace Roman Space Telescope: WFIRST, the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope. https://www.nasa.gov/content/goddard/about-nancy-grace-roman-space-telescope; https://roman.gsfc.nasa.gov/; gallery of scientific simulations: https://roman.gsfc.nasa.gov/gallery-scientific_simulations.html.

Narlikar, J. V. 1962. Neutrinos and the arrow of time in cosmology. Proc. R. Soc. A270, 553. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspa.1962.0244.

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____. 1981. Quantum conformal fluctuations near the classical space-time singularity. Found. Phys. 11 (5-6), 473. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00727076.

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____. 1993. Introduction to Cosmology (2nd ed., Foreward by F. Hoyle). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. 415 pp. (3rd ed. includes treatment of the newer QSSC).

____. 2002. An Introduction to Cosmology (third edition). UK: Cambridge.

____. 2010. An Introduction to Relativity. UK: Cambridge.

____. 2015. Trials and tribulations of playing the devil's advocate. Res. Astron. Astrophys. 15, 1. https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1674-4527/15/1/001. Narlikar reveals how he even as graduate student got pulled into the cosmological conflicts of the day, the 'war of the world-views,' and how that set the direction of his long career as an astrophysicist and cosmologist.

____. 2016. My Tale of Four Cities. Autobiography published by National Book Trust, India. 

____. 2018. The evolution of modern cosmology as seen through a personal walk across six decades. European Physics Journal H 43, 43. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1140/epjh/e2017-80048-5.

____. 2021. Three pathbreaking papers of 1966 revisited: their relevance to certain aspects of cosmological creation today. EPJ H 46, 21. https://doi.org/10.1140/epjh/s13129-021-00025-6.

Narlikar, J. V. & Burbidge, G. 2008. Facts and Speculations in Cosmology. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. This book is a non-technical followup book by Cambridge to Hoyle, Burbidge, & Narlikar's 2000 A Different Approach to Cosmology, which they point out, as a "book was quite well received by astronomers and physicists (but of course, not standard cosmologists!)" Facts and Speculations raises the issue of anomalous observational data showing ejection and expansion phenomena within galaxies and clusters of galaxies including discordant redshifts, which don't fit into the standard prevailing paradigm of the expanding universe Big Bang cosmology with gravitational coalescence of galaxies and clusters. Narlikar & Burbidge review again the history of cosmology from earliest times and show that anomalous data in cosmology (as Kuhn described) forced established paradigms into crises and changes of paradigm. By confusing facts and unobserved speculations about the 'early universe' within the Big Bang paradigm, standard cosmologists have assumed the Big Bang then ignored the anomalous data sets, because they are assumed to be impossible, given the discovery of the CMB and CMB fluctuations. Beginning with ancient creation myths, including those of world beginnings, endings, and cycles, moving up through the epicyclic cosmology of the Greek Ptolemaics, to the widening horizon in space and time of the Universe as viewed in the history of astronomy over the centuries, Narlikar and Burbidge argue that the observational data (as before) is such that there are serious problems with the prevailing Big Bang paradigm (what we call the New Ptolemaic System) and that there is room to propose an alternative cyclic cosmology of a cosmos without beginning nor end, for which they argue with their tentative QSSC proposal. In brief, "this book shows that the mystery of the origin of the Universe is far from being solved," despite the confidence of standard cosmologists.

Narlikar, J. V. & Chitre, S. M. 1977. Applications of statistical techniques to the angular size - Flux density relation for extragalactic radio sources. MNRAS 180, 525. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/180.4.525.

Narlikar, J. V. & Das, P. A. 1975. QSO redshifts and the steady state cosmology. Nature 258, 660. https://doi.org/10.1038/258660a0.

Narlikar, J. V., Edmunds, M., & Wickramasinghe, C. 1976. Limits on a microwave background without the big bang. Far Infrared Astronomy. Ed. M. Rowan Robinson. Pergamon, pp. 131-142.

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Narlikar, J. V. & Ramadurai, S. 1976. New test of the cosmological nature of QSO redshifts. Nature 264, 732. https://doi.org/10.1038/264732a0.

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Narlikar, J. V., Vishwakarma, R. G., Burbidge, G. 2002. Interpretations of the Accelerating Universe. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 114, 1092. http://arXiv.org/PS_cache/astro-ph/pdf/0205/0205064.pdf.

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Neff, M. L. 1952. The Glory of the Stars. Mountain View, CA: Pacific Press Publishing Association. A Ph.D. from a small Protestant denomination, Seventh-day Adventists, published this confessional book, glorying in modern astronomy, citing a personal creator, multiple scriptures, and numerous poets (including Alfred Noyes, 1922), starting with the Greeks, and moving through various discoveries of the 17th - 18th century astronomers, up into the first half of the 20th century. Although such luminaries as Harlow Shapley, Sir James Jeans, Fred Whipple, and others are cited, one mention of the "Einstein theory," and there is no mention of the cosmology debates between the CSSM and HBBC which were well underway in 1952. In fact, in the chapter on Earth, there was no discussion of a "young Earth" because "young earth creationism" was still a decade in the future of American consciousness.

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OpEd. 1971. Nonviolent redshifts in galaxies. Nature 234, 505. https://doi.org/10.1038/234505a0.

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OpEd by Clara Moskowitz. 2013. Puzzling measurement of "big G" gravitational constant ignites debate. Scientific American (Sept 2013). https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/puzzling-measurement-of-big-g-gravitational-constant-ignites-debate-slide-show/.

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Calder, N. 1969. Violent Universe: An eyewitness account of the New Astronomy book with the "Violent Universe" documentary, cited above, on the controversies in cosmology, and will be cited extensively in the forthcoming Chapter III, "The Hubble Relation and the expanding Universe: 'The War of the World-Views' and the slide toward a new Ptolemaic system? (1929-2013)."  Among its authors for the compiled articles in Sky & Telescope magazine treating of the controversies with a greater frankness than any popular publications today are articles by George Abell, Percy Witherell, George Mumford, and Otto Struve, among others. Similar to Caldwell's and the TV documentary series' celebration of the 'new astronomy,' Page & Page celebrate the 'new cosmology' and both take serious cognizance of the controversy over cosmological theories.   

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____. 2002b. Ricci flow with surgery on three-manifolds. https://arxiv.org/abs/math/0303109. This series of three papers by Perelman are an outline of the proof of the Poincare Theorem. In 2006 and 2010, Perelman turned down, respectively, the Fields Medal and the Clay Millennium Prize in Mathematics, arguing in part that he had done no more than his mathematical predecessor Richard S. Hamilton (1982, 1993, 1995, 1997, 1999) in solving the Poincare Theorem. In so doing, he did the opposite of some famous pioneers who aggregated undue credit to themselves. For a completion of the proof, see Morgan & Tian (2007) linked in this bibliography. 

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Poincare, Jules Henri. 1854-1912. One of the greatest (and most neglected) polymath geniuses in the history of math, physics, and the philosophy of science, including contributions to celestial mechanics, topology, chaos theory, and notably to special and general relativity. We intend to remedy the injustices by giving him the credit he deserves as one of the most original thinkers since Newton. In so doing, also will be remedied Poincare's neglect in the record of this website. {Added references to follow....}. The references to be added here and Poincare's contributions, which will be added in chapter I, will seek to delineate the pioneering contributions which he made for which credit has too often been assigned elsewhere.

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Riverside Astronomical Society (RAS), Riverside, CA: http://www.rivastro.org/index.php; Goat Mountain Astronomical Research Station (GMARS), Landers, CA; in the high desert: https://www.rivastro.org/gmars.php.

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The James Webb Space Telescope. https://webbtelescope.org/, with growing gallery.

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Dedicated to my late father, Lee F., who early bequeathed to me a love of both story and science, especially first, astronomy, the science of the Universe:
Adapted and expanded from a web-based talk (originally created in 1998 & 1999); p
resented in the first edition expanded form on 08 March 2003 to a religious forum
and in various editions to other audiences several times since.

To contact the author, Lee F Greer, Ph.D., email info@enlightenmentlegacy.net.


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